Volume 8.24 | Jun 24

2020-06-24 | IIDN 8.24
Immunology of Infectious Disease News by STEMCELL Technologies
Vol. 8.24 – 24 June, 2020
TOP STORY

Clinical and Immunological Assessment of Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infections

Researchers studied 37 asymptomatic individuals in the Wanzhou District who were diagnosed with RT–PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections but without any relevant clinical symptoms in the preceding 14 days and during hospitalization.
[Nature Medicine]

Full Article
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Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 by Destruction of the Prefusion Spike

Researchers found that the monoclonal antibody CR3022 bound the receptor binding domain (RBD) tightly, neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 and report the crystal structure at 2.4 Å of the Fab/RBD complex.
[Cell Host & Microbe]

AbstractFull ArticleGraphical Abstract

SARS-CoV-2 Infection of the Placenta

Scientists analyzed placenta for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 through molecular and immunohistochemical assays and by and electron microscopy, and measured the maternal antibody response in blood to this infection.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]

AbstractFull Article

Syrian Hamsters as a Small Animal Model for SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Countermeasure Development

Researchers assessed the replicative ability and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 isolates in Syrian hamsters. SARS-CoV-2 isolates replicated efficiently in the lungs of hamsters, causing severe pathological lung lesions following intranasal infection.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]

Full ArticlePress Release

Structural Plasticity of SARS-CoV-2 3CL Mpro Active Site Cavity Revealed by Room Temperature X-Ray Crystallography

Investigators report the room temperature X-ray structure of unliganded SARS-CoV-2 3CL Mpro, revealing the ligand-free structure of the active site and the conformation of the catalytic site cavity at near-physiological temperature.
[Scientific Reports]

Full Article

Potential Antiviral Options against SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Investigators developed a neutralization assay using SARS-CoV-2 strain and Vero-E6 cells. They identified the most potent sera from recovered patients for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. They also screened 136 safe-in-man broad-spectrum antivirals against the SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero-E6 cells and identified nelfinavir, salinomycin, amodiaquine, obatoclax, emetine and homoharringtonine.
[Viruses]

Full Article

CBASS Immunity Uses CARF-Related Effectors to Sense 3′–5′- and 2′–5′-Linked Cyclic Oligonucleotide Signals and Protect Bacteria from Phage Infection

Investigators discovered Enterobacter cloacae CD-NTase-associated protein 4 (Cap4) as a founding member of a diverse family of >2,000 bacterial receptors that responded to CD-NTase signals. Structures of Cap4 revealed a promiscuous DNA endonuclease domain activated through ligand-induced oligomerization.
[Cell]

AbstractGraphical Abstract

Peripherally Induced Brain Tissue–Resident Memory CD8+ T Cells Mediate Protection against CNS Infection

Researchers showed that peripheral infections generated antigen-specific CD8+ memory T cells in the brain that adopted a unique tissue resident memory signature.
[Nature Immunology]

Abstract

BCG Vaccination in Humans Elicits Trained Immunity via the Hematopoietic Progenitor Compartment

Researchers showed that Bacille-Calmette-Guérin vaccination in healthy human volunteers induced a persistent transcriptional program connected to myeloid cell development and function within the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell compartment in the bone marrow.
[Cell Host & Microbe]

Full ArticleGraphical Abstract

Restoring Glucose Uptake Rescues Neutrophil Dysfunction and Protects against Systemic Fungal Infection in Mouse Models of Kidney Disease

Researchers showed in multiple models that uremic mice exhibited an increased susceptibility to systemic fungal infection. Uremia inhibited Glut1-mediated uptake of glucose in neutrophils by causing aberrant activation of GSK3β, resulting in reduced ROS generation and hence impaired killing of C. albicans in mice.
[Science Translational Medicine]

Abstract

TLR2 on Blood Monocytes Senses Dengue Virus Infection and Its Expression Correlates with Disease Pathogenesis

Scientists demonstrated that TLR2, together with its co-receptors CD14 and TLR6, was an innate sensor of Dengue virus particles inducing inflammatory cytokine expression and impairing vascular integrity in vitro.
[Nature Communications]

Full Article

Neutrophils Use Selective Autophagy Receptor Sqstm1/p62 to Target Staphylococcus aureus for Degradation In Vivo in Zebrafish

Investigators determined the fate and location of S. aureus within neutrophils throughout zebrafish infection.
[Journal of Autophagy]

Abstract

HSF1 Inhibition Attenuates HIV-1 Latency Reversal Mediated by Several Candidate LRAs In Vitro and Ex Vivo

In cells from infected individuals, inhibition of heat shock factor 1 attenuated latency reversal by phorbol ester+ionomycin but not by anti-CD3+anti-CD28.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]

Abstract

Human MAIT Cell Cytolytic Effector Proteins Synergize to Overcome Carbapenem Resistance in Escherichia coli

Scientists showed that mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells mediate MR1-restricted antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli clinical strains in a manner dependent on the activity of cytolytic proteins but independent of production of pro-inflammatory cytokines or induction of apoptosis in infected cells.
[PLoS Biology]

Full Article

Who does immunology research in the Bolivian Andes? He does. Read Jason Young's story.
REVIEWS

GM-CSF-Based Treatments in COVID-19: Reconciling Opposing Therapeutic Approaches

Granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor, a myelopoietic growth factor and pro-inflammatory cytokine, plays a critical role in alveolar macrophage homeostasis, lung inflammation and immunological disease. Both administration and inhibition of GM-CSF are currently being therapeutically tested in COVID-19 clinical trials.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]

Full Article

COVID-19 Revisiting Inflammatory Pathways of Arthritis

The pattern of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced in COVID-19 has similarities to those targeted in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Several clinical studies are underway that test the effects of inhibiting IL-6, IL-1β or TNF or targeting cytokine signaling via Janus kinase inhibition in the treatment of COVID-19.
[Nature Reviews Rheumatology]

Full Article

From Threat to Cure: Understanding of Virus-Induced Cell Death Leads to Highly Immunogenic Oncolytic Influenza Viruses

The authors discuss strategies for targeting viral replication to cancerous lesions and arming them with immunogenic transgenes. They describe which modes of cell death are induced by influenza A virus infection and how these insights may be utilized to optimize influenza A virus-based oncolytic virus design.
[Cell Death Discovery]

Full Article

INDUSTRY AND POLICY NEWS

The Pandemic’s Worst-Case Scenario Is Unfolding in Brazil

The reasons Brazil has made such a perfect host for the coronavirus are diverse and not yet fully understood.
[Bloomberg Businessweek]

Editorial

Top US Health Officials Say They Were Never Told to Slow Down COVID-19 Testing, Contradicting Trump

Four key government health care officials said Tuesday that despite recent remarks from President Trump, they were never ordered to “slow down” diagnostic testing for Covid-19.
[STAT News]

Editorial

Acceleration in New COVID-19 Cases in Some US States Causes Alarm

The growth in the number of COVID-19 cases is accelerating substantially in more than one-quarter of US states, as federal and local governments grapple with how to ease lockdown measures brought in to help slow the pandemic.
[The Scientist]

Editorial

Sanofi and Translate Bio Expand Collaboration to Develop mRNA Vaccines across All Infectious Disease Areas

Sanofi Pasteur and Translate Bio have agreed to expand their existing 2018 collaboration and license agreement to develop mRNA vaccines for infectious diseases.
[Sanofi]

Press Release

Mateon Therapeutics Selects IQVIA for Its Randomized, Controlled, Multi-Center Clinical Study to Test OT-101 as a Treatment for COVID-19 Patients

Mateon Therapeutics has selected IQVIA to manage C001, a Phase II randomized, controlled, multi-center clinical study of OT-101.
[Mateon Therapeutics]

Press Release

FEATURED EVENT

53rd Annual Meeting Society for Leukocyte Biology

2020-09-30 – 2020-10-03
Virtual

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JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Research Scientist – SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Development

Ohio State University – Columbus, Ohio, United States

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune and Stem Cell Engineering

Terasaki Institute for Biomedical Innovation – Los Angeles, California, United States

Professor Experimental Medical Science in Immunology

Lund University – Lund, Sweden

Postdoctoral Fellow – Host-Viral Interactions

Thomas Jefferson Universtiy – Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Vaccinations

Brigham and Women’s Hospital – Boston, Massachusetts, United States

> See All Jobs

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