Volume 8.23 | June 17

2020-06-17 | IIDN 8.23
Immunology of Infectious Disease News by STEMCELL Technologies
Vol. 8.23 – 17 June, 2020
TOP STORY

CBASS Immunity Uses CARF-Related Effectors to Sense 3′–5′- and 2′–5′-Linked Cyclic Oligonucleotide Signals and Protect Bacteria from Phage Infection

Investigators discovered Enterobacter cloacae CD-NTase-associated protein 4 (Cap4) as a founding member of a diverse family of >2,000 bacterial receptors that responded to CD-NTase signals. Structures of Cap4 revealed a promiscuous DNA endonuclease domain activated through ligand-induced oligomerization.
[Cell]

AbstractGraphical Abstract

Who does immunology research in the Bolivian Andes? He does. Read Jason Young's story.
PUBLICATIONSRanked by the impact factor of the journal

Systemically Comparing Host Immunity between Survived and Deceased COVID-19 Patients

Scientists summarized the characteristics of cellular immune responses in a total of 157 COVID-19 patients enrolled in Tongji Hospital between February and March 2020 and compare the properties between 95 survived and 62 deceased patients with different onset time.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]

Full Article

Optimization of Primer Sets and Detection Protocols for SARS-CoV-2 of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Using PCR and Real-Time PCR

Scientists provide three-step guidelines for the design and optimization of specific primer sets. The three steps include the selection of primer sets for target genes in the genome of SARS-CoV-2, the in silico validation of primer and amplicon sequences, and the optimization of PCR conditions for specific hybridization between the primers and target genes, and the elimination of spurious primer dimers.
[Experimental and Molecular Medicine]

Full Article

Potential Antiviral Options against SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Investigators developed a neutralization assay using SARS-CoV-2 strain and Vero-E6 cells. They identified the most potent sera from recovered patients for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. They also screened 136 safe-in-man broad-spectrum antivirals against the SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero-E6 cells and identified nelfinavir, salinomycin, amodiaquine, obatoclax, emetine and homoharringtonine.
[Viruses]

Full Article

The Intermucosal Connection between the Mouth and Gut in Commensal Pathobiont-Driven Colitis

Investigators report that periodontal inflammation exacerbates gut inflammation in vivo. Periodontitis led to expansion of oral pathobionts, including Klebsiella and Enterobacter species, in the oral cavity.
[Cell]

AbstractGraphical Abstract

BCG Vaccination in Humans Elicits Trained Immunity via the Hematopoietic Progenitor Compartment

Researchers showed that Bacille-Calmette-Guérin vaccination in healthy human volunteers induced a persistent transcriptional program connected to myeloid cell development and function within the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell compartment in the bone marrow.
[Cell Host & Microbe]

Full ArticleGraphical Abstract

The Tumor Suppressor TMEM127 Is a Nedd4-Family E3 Ligase Adaptor Required by Salmonella SteD to Ubiquitinate and Degrade MHC Class II Molecules

Through a genome-wide mutant screen of human antigen-presenting cells, investigators showed that the NEDD4 family HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP2 and a tumor-suppressing transmembrane protein of unknown biochemical function, TMEM127, were required for SteD-dependent ubiquitination of mature MHC class II.
[Cell Host & Microbe]

Full ArticleGraphical Abstract

FOXO1 Promotes HIV Latency by Suppressing ER Stress in T Cells

Researchers report that, in resting T cells, FOXO1 inhibition impaired autophagy and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, thereby activating two associated transcription factors: activating transcription factor 4 and nuclear factor of activated T cells.
[Nature Microbiology]

Abstract

Metabolic Reprogramming by Zika Virus Provokes Inflammation in Human Placenta

Scientists showed, using large scale metabolomics, that ZIKV infection reprogrammed placental lipidome by impairing the lipogenesis pathways. ZIKV-induced metabolic alterations provided building blocks for lipid droplet biogenesis and intracellular membrane rearrangements to support viral replication.
[Nature Communications]

Full Article

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Offer a Drug-Tolerant and Immune-Privileged Niche to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Investigators report that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) sheltered Mybacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) to help tolerate anti-TB drugs. MSCs readily took up Mtb and allowed unabated mycobacterial growth despite having a functional innate pathway of phagosome maturation.
[Nature Communications]

Full Article

TLR7 Sensing by Neutrophils Is Critical for the Control of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

Leishmania-infected Tlr7−/− mice developed a chronic unhealing lesion, despite Th1 cell differentiation, and scientists showed that Tlr7−/− neutrophils alone mediated this effect. Conversely, topical treatment with a TLR7 agonist early in infection induced smaller lesion development than in untreated mice.
[Cell Reports]

Full ArticleGraphical Abstract

Shedding of Brucella melitensis Happens through Milk Macrophages in the Murine Model of Infection

Pregnant Balb/cByJ mice were intraperitoneally infected with 105 CFU of the 16 M reference strain, a 16 M mCherry mutant or a human isolate. Milk was collected over the course of lactation, and subjected to culture and immunofluorescence assays.
[Scientific Reports]

Full Article

Protection of Layers and Breeders against Homologous or Heterologous HPAIv by Vaccines from Korean National Antigen Bank

Researchers evaluated the efficacy of the clade 2.3.2.1c and 2.3.4.4c H5Nx vaccines from the Korean avian influenza national antigen bank for emergency preparedness for their potency and protective efficacy against lethal homologous and heterologous viruses in layer and breeder chickens practically.
[Scientific Reports]

Full Article

Downregulation of HLA-I by the Molluscum Contagiosum Virus Mc080 Impacts NK-Cell Recognition and Promotes CD8+ T-Cell Evasion

MC080, but not MC033, downregulated cell-surface expression of endogenous classical human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I and non-classical HLA-E by a transporter associated with antigen processing-independent mechanism.
[Journal of General Virology]

Full Article

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REVIEWS

Considering How Biological Sex Impacts Immune Responses and COVID-19 Outcomes

The authors discuss available sex-disaggregated epidemiological data from the COVID-19 pandemic, introduce sex-differential features of immunity and highlight potential sex differences underlying COVID-19 severity.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]

Full Article

Targeting JAK-STAT Signaling to Control Cytokine Release Syndrome in COVID-19

Several of the cytokines involved in COVID-19 employ a distinct intracellular signaling pathway mediated by Janus kinases (JAKs). JAK inhibition, therefore, presents an attractive therapeutic strategy for cytokine release syndrome, which is a common cause of adverse clinical outcomes in COVID-19.
[Trends in Pharmacological Sciences]

Full Article

Variations in Killer-Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor and Human Leukocyte Antigen Genes and Immunity to Malaria

Understanding the role of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors and human leukocyte antigens in immunity to malaria can help to better characterize antimalarial immune responses. The authors summarize the different KIRs and HLAs associated with immunity to malaria thus far.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]

Full Article

INDUSTRY AND POLICY NEWS

Immune Status Could Determine Efficacy of COVID-19 Therapies

Emerging evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 can drive a diverse array of immune processes, raising the risk that immunosuppressant agents that are in clinical trials might be effective for some patients but detrimental for others.
[Nature Reviews Drug Discovery]

Editorial

How Deadly Is the Coronavirus? Scientists Are Close to an Answer

Researchers use a metric called infection fatality rate (IFR) to calculate how deadly a new disease is. It is the proportion of infected people who will die as a result, including those who don’t get tested or show symptoms.
[Nature News]

Editorial

‘We’ve Got to Be Able to Move More Quickly.’ The Pandemic Reality of COVID-19 Clinical Trials

With speed borne of desperation comes risk and confusion—of trials too small to yield answers, of treatments overhyped, and of uncertainty about how to design the best studies possible. Science spoke with three clinical trial experts about this unprecedented period for modern medical research.
[ScienceInsider]

Editorial

Pluristem Announces Activation of Clinical Sites and Commencement of Patient Enrollment in US FDA Phase II COVID-19 ARDS Trial

Pluristem Therapeutics, Inc. announced the activation of clinical sites and initiation of enrollment in its Phase II US FDA study of PLX cells for the treatment of severe COVID-19 complicated by Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS).
[Pluristem Therapeutics, Inc. ]

Press Release

Adamis Pharmaceuticals Announces License to Commercialize Tempol, a Novel Investigational Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Drug for the Treatment of Respiratory Diseases Including COVID-19

Adamis Pharmaceuticals Corporation announced a license to commercialize Tempol, a novel patented investigational drug for the treatment of COVID-19. The license includes the worldwide use of Tempol for the treatment of all respiratory diseases including asthma, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza and COVID-19.
[Adamis Pharmaceuticals]

Press Release

UCLA Receives Nearly $14 Million from NIH to Investigate Gene Therapy to Combat HIV

University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) researchers and colleagues have received a $13.65 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to investigate and further develop an immunotherapy known as CAR T, which uses genetically modified stem cells to target and destroy HIV.
[University of California, Los Angeles]

Press Release

FEATURED EVENT

Glia in Health & Disease

2020-07-16 – 2020-07-16
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JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune and Stem Cell Engineering

Terasaki Institute for Biomedical Innovation – Los Angeles, California, United States

Professor Experimental Medical Science in Immunology

Lund University – Lund, Sweden

Postdoctoral Fellow – Host-Viral Interactions

Thomas Jefferson Universtiy – Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Vaccinations

Brigham and Women’s Hospital – Boston, Massachusetts, United States

Postdoctoral Fellow – Pathogenic Fungi

Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology – Jena, Germany

Postdoctoral Fellow – Innate Lymphocytes and Influenza Pathogenesis

Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation – Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States

Postdoctoral Fellow – Bacterial Infection

Seattle Children’s Research Institute – Seattle, Washington, United States

Postdoctoral Researcher – Human Pathogenicity and Fungi

Hans Knöll Institute – Jena, Germany

Research Fellow – Infectious Disease

The Lundquist Institute – Torrance, California, United States

Director – Malaria Research

Johns Hopkins University – Baltimore, Maryland, United States

> See All Jobs

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