Volume 4.19 | May 18

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 4.19 May 18, 2016
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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NIH-Led Team Discovers New HIV Vaccine Target
Scientists discovered a new vulnerable site on HIV for a vaccine to target, a broadly neutralizing antibody that binds to that target site, and how the antibody stops the virus from infecting a cell. The new target is a part of HIV called the fusion peptide, a string of eight amino acids that helps the virus fuse with a cell to infect it. [Press release the from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) discussing online prepublication in Science] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
CD3brightCD56+ T Cells Associate with Pegylated Interferon-Alpha Treatment Nonresponse in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients
Investigators observed that chronic hepatitis B patients preferentially harbored CD3brightCD56+ T cells, a newly identified CD56+ T cell population. Patients with this unique T cell population exhibited relatively poor responses to pegylated interferon-alpha treatment. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Targeting Multiple Response Regulators of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Augments the Host Immune Response to Infection
Researchers demonstrated that a conserved motif present in the C-terminal domain regulates the DNA binding functions of the OmpR family of M. tuberculosis response regulator (RR). Molecular docking studies against this motif helped to identify two molecules with a thiazolidine scaffold capable of targeting multiple RRs, and modulating their regulons to attenuate bacterial replication in macrophages. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T Cells Dampen Inflammatory Disease in Murine Mycoplasma Pneumonia and Promote IL-17 and IFN-gamma Responses
Scientists hypothesized that Treg cells control the severity of the inflammatory lesions and may also promote persistence of infection. To examine this, BALB/c mice were depleted of CD25+ cells, and had increased disease severity due to Mycoplasma pulmonis infection. [PLoS One] Full Article

Human Eosinophils Modulate Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Response to Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worm Antigen In Vitro
Researchers report results of a study that examines peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine responses to S. mansoni adult worm antigen when stimulated alone or enriched with autologous eosinophils. [Parasite Immunol] Abstract


Impact of Pre-Adapted HIV Transmission
Scientists demonstrated that transmission of viruses that are pre-adapted to the human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA) molecules expressed in the recipient is associated with impaired immunogenicity, elevated viral load and accelerated CD4+ T cell decline. [Nat Med] Abstract | Press Release

The Impact of HIV Infection on Blood Leukocyte Responsiveness to Bacterial Stimulation in Asymptomatic Patients and Patients with Bloodstream Infection
The authors examined the impact of HIV on whole blood responsiveness to bacterial stimulation in asymptomatic subjects and patients with bacterial bloodstream infection. [J Int AIDS Soc] Full Article

SAMHD1 Controls Cell Cycle Status, Apoptosis and HIV-1 Infection in Monocytic THP-1 Cells
Investigators explored the function of SAMHD1 in regulating cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis in monocytic THP-1 cells. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology, they generated THP-1 cells with stable SAMHD1 knockout. [Virology] Abstract

LEDGIN-Mediated Inhibition of Integrase–LEDGF/p75 Interaction Reduces Reactivation of Residual Latent HIV
The authors proposed a novel strategy to reduce the replicating human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reservoir during primary HIV infection by means of drug-induced retargeting of HIV integration. [EBioMedicine] Full Article | Press Release

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Costimulatory and Coinhibitory Receptor Pathways in Infectious Disease
Studies are discussed that have addressed how major inhibitory and costimulatory pathways play a role in regulating immune responses during acute and chronic infections. Mechanistic insights from studies of infectious disease provide opportunities to further expand the toolkit to treat cancer and chronic infections in the clinic. [Immunity] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.
Dipexium Pharmaceuticals Announces Completion of Enrollment Objective in OneStep-2 Pivotal Phase III Clinical Trial
Dipexium Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that it has completed the patient enrollment objective in the OneStep-1 pivotal Phase III clinical trial in accordance with the requirements set forth in the OneStep-1 clinical trial protocol. [Dipexium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

BD Expands Reproductive and Sexually Transmitted Infections Portfolio with CE Mark for the BD MAX™ Vaginal Panel
BD (Becton, Dickinson and Company) announced that it obtained CE mark for the BD MAX™ Vaginal Panel. The new in vitro diagnostic assay will provide laboratories and clinicians the ability to use a single test to detect microorganisms responsible for Bacterial Vaginosis, Candidiasis and Trichomoniasis, which are the most common infectious causes of vaginitis. [Becton, Dickinson and Company] Press Release

Pfizer Presents Results from Two Phase III TRUMENBA® (Meningococcal Group B Vaccine) Studies at the European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases Meeting
Pfizer Inc. announced results of two Phase III studies demonstrating the immunogenicity of TRUMENBA® (Meningococcal Group B Vaccine) against invasive meningococcal B strains representative of prevalent strains in the U.S. and Europe. The two studies, one in adolescents and one in young adults, met all primary immunogenicity endpoints. [Pfizer Inc.] Press Release

Medivir Announces That Janssen Decided to Start a Phase IIb Study of Combinations of Simeprevir, Odalasvir and AL-335 for the Treatment of Hepatitis C
Medivir AB announced that Janssen Research & Development, LLC. has decided to initiate a Phase IIb study to investigate the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of different treatment regimens of AL-335, odalasvir, and simeprevir in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients with chronic Hepatitis C Virus genotype 1-6 infection, with and without cirrhosis. [Medivir AB] Press Release

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European Medicines Agency (European Union)

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Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 7th HIV & Aging Workshop 2016
September 26-27, 2016
Washington DC, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
NEW Research Associate – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

NEW Scientific Communications and Publishing Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – T Cell Immunology (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Immune Response to Infection (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Research Positions – Basic Medical Sciences (Zhejiang University)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunity and Pathogenesis (Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute)

Research Positions – Infection and Immunity (Columbia University)

Principal Investigators – Infectious Diseases (CCID)

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