Volume 4.18 | May 11

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 4.18 May 11, 2016
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Antibody Therapy Opens Door to Potential New Treatment for HIV
Researchers are developing a new kind of treatment, an antibody-based drug that may provide a better strategy for long-term control of HIV. Recent findings from a Phase I clinical trial offer new insights about how the antibody functions. [Press release from Rockefeller University discussing online prepublication in Science] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Bacterial Outer Membrane Vesicles Mediate Cytosolic Localization of LPS and Caspase-11 Activation
Researchers identified outer membrane vesicles produced by Gram-negative bacteria as a vehicle that delivers lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the cytosol triggering caspase-11-dependent effector responses in vitro and in vivo. [Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Protection against Malaria at 1 Year and Immune Correlates Following PfSPZ Vaccination
The authors assessed how vaccine dosage, regimen, and route of administration affected durable protection in malaria-naive adults. After four intravenous immunizations with 2.7 × 105 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoite (SPZ) vaccine, 6/11 (55%) vaccinated subjects remained without parasitemia following controlled human malaria infection 21 weeks after immunization. [Nat Med] Abstract | Press Release

Most Neutralizing Human Monoclonal Antibodies Target Novel Epitopes Requiring Both Lassa Virus Glycoprotein Subunits
Investigators cloned 113 human monoclonal antibodies specific for Lassa virus glycoproteins from memory B cells of Lassa fever survivors from West Africa. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Peptidoglycan-Linked Protein a Promotes T Cell-Dependent Antibody Expansion during Staphylococcus aureus Infection
Scientists report here that S. aureus-infected mice generate VH3 antibody expansions via a mechanism requiring MHC-restricted antigen presentation to CD4+ T cells and staphylococcal protein A, a cell wall-anchored surface molecule that binds Fcγ and VH3 variant heavy chains of Ig. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Full Article

Lymphotoxin-Dependent B Cell-FRC Crosstalk Promotes De Novo Follicle Formation and Antibody Production following Intestinal Helminth Infection
Although the formation of B cell follicles was previously thought to be restricted to the postnatal period, scientists observed that the draining mesenteric lymph nodes of helminth-infected mice form an extensive number of new, centrally located, B cell follicles in response to IL-4Rα-dependent inflammation. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release


HIV-1 Therapy with Monoclonal Antibody 3BNC117 Elicits Host Immune Responses against HIV-1
Researchers report that HIV-1 immunotherapy with a single injection of 3BNC117 affects host antibody responses in viremic subjects. In comparison to untreated controls that showed little change in their neutralizing activity over a six-month period, 3BNC117 infusion significantly improved neutralizing responses to heterologous tier 2 viruses in nearly all study participants. [Science] Abstract

HIV-1 Infection-Induced Suppression of the Let-7i/IL-2 Axis Contributes to CD4+ T Cell Death
Scientists reported that cellular microRNA let-7i upregulates interleukin (IL)-2 expression by targeting the promoter TATA-box region, which functions as a positive regulator. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Antiviral Factors and Type I/III Interferon Expression Associated with Regulatory Factors in the Oral Epithelial Cells from HIV-1-Serodiscordant Couples
Scientists analyzed type I interferon-related antiviral and regulatory factors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and oral epithelial cells from serodiscordant couples. Their findings revealed that exposed seronegative individuals did not induce the expression of antiviral factors (APOBEC-3G, TRIM5-α, SAMDH1, STING, TBk1) or regulatory factors (Trex, Foxo3, Socs3, IL-10) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, unlike their HIV-1-infected partners. [Sci Rep] Full Article

HIV Infection-Induced Transcriptional Program in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells Activates a CXCR2 Driven CD4+ T Cell Chemotactic Response
To understand how HIV replication initiates HIV-associated nephropathy, scientists studied the cellular response of renal tubule epithelial cells (RTECs) to HIV, examining the transcriptional profiles of primary RTECs exposed to cell-free HIV or HIV-infected T cells. [AIDS] Abstract

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HIV-1 Nef: Taking Control of Protein Trafficking
Researchers review the knowledge gained and discuss new findings regarding the mechanisms by which Nef modifies the intracellular trafficking pathways to prevent antigen presentation, facilitate viral particle release and enhance the infectivity of HIV-1 virions. [Traffic] Abstract

Herpes Zoster and the Search for an Effective Vaccine
The authors review VZV pathogenesis, host responses and current vaccines available to prevent herpes zoster. [Clin Exp Immunol] Abstract

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UAH Spinoff GeneCapture Wins $100,000 in Inaugural Competition
A company started by a University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) professor has won $100,000 in Alabama Launchpad’s inaugural LEAP Alumni Startup Competition. [The University of Alabama in Huntsville] Press Release

The Wistar Institute and Plumbline Life Sciences Collaborate to Advance DNA-Based Vaccines for Companion Animals
The Wistar Institute and Plumbline Life Sciences, Inc. announced a partnership that leverages Wistar’s cutting-edge vaccine research and Plumbline’s expertise developing animal treatments and vaccines. [The Wistar Institute] Press Release

Justin Trudeau Pledges $785 Million over 3 Years to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria
Canada is pledging an additional $785 million over three years to the Global Fund to fight AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced. [Canadian Broadcasting Corporation] Press Release

Viriom Announces Receipt of Funding from the Skolkovo Foundation, ChemRar and Torrey Pines Investment to Develop Elpida®, a Novel Preventive and Long-acting Treatment of HIV/AIDS
Viriom Inc. announced that it raised $4,700,000 of equity and non-equity financing for the development of fixed-dose combinations and long-acting injection formulations of Elpida® (elpivirine), Viriom’s best-in-class non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. [Viriom Inc. (PR Newswire Association LLC.)] Press Release

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Yellow Fever Epidemic: New Global Health Emergency?
Evidence is mounting that the current outbreak of yellow fever is becoming the latest global health emergency, say two experts who call on the World Health Organization to convene an emergency committee under the International Health Regulations. [Georgetown University Medical Center] Editorial

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NEW 21st International AIDS Conference 2016 (AIDS 2016)
July 18-22, 2016
Durban, South Africa

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NEW Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Immune Response to Infection (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Research Technologist – T Cell Immunology (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Faculty Positions – Immunology and Host-Microbe Interactions (Ohio State University)

Research Positions – Basic Medical Sciences (Zhejiang University)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunity and Pathogenesis (Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Erasmus MC)

Research Positions – Infection and Immunity (Columbia University)

Principal Investigators – Infectious Diseases (CCID)

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