Volume 4.16 | Apr 27

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 4.16 April 27, 2016
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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TOP STORY
Single Antibody Infusions Provide Durable Protection against HIV-Like Virus in Monkeys
A single antibody infusion can protect monkeys against infection with an HIV-like virus for up to 23 weeks. Researchers rectally exposed macaques to weekly low doses of simian human immunodeficiency virus, which contains components of HIV and a related monkey virus. On average, it took three weeks for detectable levels of virus to appear in the blood of untreated animals. [Press release from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases discussing online prepublication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Mx1 Reveals Innate Pathways to Antiviral Resistance and Lethal Influenza Disease
Scientists showed that influenza A virus-infected monocytes from older humans have impaired antiviral interferon production but retain intact inflammasome responses. [Science] Abstract | Press Release

An Endogenous Caspase-11 Ligand Elicits Interleukin-1 Release from Living Dendritic Cells
Investigators report that encounters with microbial products and self-encoded oxidized phospholipids (oxPAPC) induce an enhanced dendritic cell (DC) activation state, which they call “hyperactive.” Hyperactive DCs induce potent adaptive immune responses and are elicited by caspase-11, an enzyme that binds oxPAPC and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. [Science] Abstract | Press Release

Amelioration of Sepsis by TIE2 Activation–Induced Vascular Protection
Compared with a conventional angiopoietin 2 (ANG2)-blocking antibody, ABTAA (ANG2-binding and TIE2-activating antibody) was highly effective in augmenting survival from sepsis by strengthening the endothelial glycocalyx, reducing cytokine storms, vascular leakage, and rarefaction, and mitigating organ damage. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

Sequential Infection with Common Pathogens Promotes Human-Like Immune Gene Expression and Altered Vaccine Response
Researchers sequentially infected laboratory mice with herpesviruses, influenza, and an intestinal helminth and compared their blood immune signatures to mock-infected mice before and after vaccination against yellow fever virus. Sequential infection altered pre- and post-vaccination gene expression, cytokines, and antibodies in blood. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

TNF-Mediated Restriction of Arginase 1 Expression in Myeloid Cells Triggers Type 2 NO Synthase Activity at the Site of Infection
Investigators found that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonized alternative activation of macrophages and dendritic cells by IL-4. In Leishmania major-infected C57BL/6 wild-type mice, type 2 nitric oxide (NO) synthase was detected in inflammatory dendritic cells or macrophages, some of which co-expressed arginase 1. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Intravaginal Zinc Oxide Tetrapod Nanoparticles as Novel Immunoprotective Agents against Genital Herpes
Investigators demonstrated that zinc oxide tetrapod nanoparticles (ZOTEN), when used intravaginally as a microbicide, is an effective suppressor of HSV-2 genital infection in female BALB/c mice. ZOTEN promoted the presentation of bound HSV-2 virions to mucosal APCs, enhancing T cell–mediated and Ab-mediated responses to the infection, and thereby suppressing a reinfection. [J Immunol] Abstract | Press Release

Microbially Cleaved Immunoglobulins Are Sensed by the Innate Immune Receptor LILRA2
Scientists found that immunoglobulins disrupted by microbial pathogens are specifically detected by leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor A2 (LILRA2), an orphan activating receptor expressed on human myeloid cells. These microbially cleaved immunoglobulins but not normal immunoglobulins stimulated human neutrophils via LILRA2. [Nat Microbiol] Abstract

HIV

Methylome-Wide Analysis of Chronic HIV Infection Reveals Five-Year Increase in Biological Age and Epigenetic Targeting of HLA
To investigate and quantify the impact of chronic HIV infection on aging, the authors report a global analysis of the whole-blood DNA methylomes of 137 HIV+ individuals under sustained therapy along with 44 matched HIV individuals. [Mol Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Human CD8+ T Cells Transduced with an Additional Receptor Bispecific for Both Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV-1 Recognize Both Epitopes
To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report proposing to produce responses against two dissimilar antigenic peptides of M. tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) simultaneously by transfecting CD8+ T cells with a single T cell receptor. [J Cell Mol Med] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Antihelminthics in Helminth-Endemic Areas: Effects on HIV Disease Progression
The authors evaluate the effects of deworming drugs (antihelminthic therapy) on markers of HIV disease progression, anemia, and adverse events in children and adults. [Cochrane Database Syst Rev] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Immune Therapeutics Receives NAFDAC Approval for Lodonal™ in Nigeria: Approval Follows Successful Recent Bridging Study
Immune Therapeutics, Inc. announced that Nigeria’s National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) has approved its patented Lodonal as an over the counter, non-toxic adjunct therapy in the treatment of HIV/AIDS and immune system regulator. [Immune Therapeutics, Inc. (Globe Newswire)] Press Release

Creative Medical Health, Inc. Files Patent on Stem Cell Therapy for Zika Virus Neurological Effects
Creative Medical Health, Inc. announced filing of a patent covering the use of proprietary mesenchymal stem cell types in the treatment of neurological complications of Zika virus. [Creative Medical Health, Inc. (Business Wire)] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW SEIMC 2016 Spanish Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Congress
May 26-28, 2016
Barcelona, Spain

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Research Technologist – T Cell Immunology (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

NEW Research Technologist – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Positions – Infection and Immunity (Columbia University)

Postdoctoral Researcher – HIV Biology (Johns Hopkins University)

Postdoctoral Position – Dendritic Cells in Inflammation and Infection (Centre d’Immunologie de Marseille Luminy)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard)

Principal Investigators – Infectious Diseases (CCID)

Administrative Head – Vaccine and Infectious Disease (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Research Technician I – HIV Vaccine Trials (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)


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