Volume 4.14 | Apr 13

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 4.14 April 13, 2016
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Potent HIV Antibodies Suggest New Vaccine Development Approach
Scientists have isolated antibodies with a loop-like structure that binds tightly to HIV and disables it — even in people who have never been infected by the virus. They suggest that it may be possible to rapidly induce broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV in people who have not been exposed previously to HIV by using a structure-based vaccine design approach. [Press release from Vanderbilt University discussing online prepublication in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
T-Cell Activation Is an Immune Correlate of Risk in BCG Vaccinated Infants
Scientists performed a case–control analysis to identify immune correlates of tuberculosis disease risk in Bacille Calmette–Guerin (BCG) immunized infants from the MVA85A efficacy trial. [Nat Commun] Full Article

The Typhoid Toxin Promotes Host Survival and the Establishment of a Persistent Asymptomatic Infection
Investigators assessed the effects of the Salmonella enterica genotoxin, known as typhoid toxin, in in vivo models of murine infection. Unexpectedly, the genotoxic subunit’s expression promoted the survival of the host, and was associated with a significant reduction of severe enteritis in the early phases of infection. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Press Release

Primary Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri Infection Induces Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells that Suppress CD4+ Th2 Responses and Promote Chronic Infection
Scientists observed significant increases in F4/80CD11bhiGr1hi cells in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen after primary but not challenge infection; a high proportion of these cells expressed Ly6G and Ly6C. These cells, which phenotypically resemble myeloid-derived suppressor cells, increased in lamina propria early during primary infection. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

A Novel Therapeutic Strategy of Lipidated Promiscuous Peptide against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Eliciting Th1 and Th17 Immunity of Host
Researchers designed a novel therapeutic strategy by reinforcing the efficacy of drugs to kill Mtb by concurrently boosting host immunity by L91. L91 is chimera of promiscuous epitope of Acr1 antigen of Mtb and TLR-2 agonist Pam2Cys. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Long-Lasting Cross-Protection against Influenza a by Neuraminidase and M2e-Based Immunization Strategies
Researchers compared protection and CD8+ T cell responses following challenge with H1N1 2009 pandemic and H3N2 viruses of mice that had been immunized with hemagglutinin, neuraminidase and the extracellular domain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) fused to a virus-like particle. [Sci Rep] Full Article


CRISPR/Cas9-Derived Mutations Both Inhibit HIV-1 Replication and Accelerate Viral Escape
Using HIV-1, researchers demonstrated that many insertions and deletions are indeed lethal for the virus, but that others lead to the emergence of replication competent viruses that are resistant to Cas9/single guide RNA. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Editorial 1 | Editorial 2 | Press Release

Development of Synthetic Light-Chain Antibodies as Novel and Potent HIV Fusion Inhibitors
Scientists developed the first potent and broad light-chain variable domain (VL) single-domain antibody fusion inhibitor of HIV infection. Two anti-HR1 VLs strongly inhibited laboratory-adapted HIV-1 infectivity. [AIDS] Abstract

Specific Elimination of Latently HIV-1 Infected Cells Using HIV-1 Protease-Sensitive Toxin Nanocapsules
Researchers developed an approach to specifically target and kill cells that are activated early in the process of virus production. By using well-established latent infection models, J-Lat and U1 cells, they demonstrated that only within an HIV-1-producing cell expressing functional HIV-1 protease will the nanocapsule release its ricin A cargo, shutting down viral and cellular protein synthesis, and ultimately leading to rapid death of the producer cell. [PLoS One] Full Article

IL-1β and IL-18 Inhibition of HIV-1 Replication in Jurkat Cells and PBMCs
Using susceptible lymphocytic cell line, Jurkat cells, and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), investigators studied the effects of IL-1β and IL-18 on HIV-1 replication. [Biochem Biophys Res Commun] Abstract

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The Clinical Applications of Genome Editing in HIV
Scientists review laboratory and clinical findings of CCR5 editing in T cells and HSPCs for HIV therapy, and summarize other promising genome editing approaches for future clinical development. [Blood] Abstract

MicroRNAs, HIV and HCV: A Complex Relation towards Pathology
The authors delve into the mechanisms underlying cellular and viral-encoded microRNA functions in the context of HIV and HCV infections. They focus on which microRNAs are differently expressed and deregulated upon viral infection and how these alterations dictate the fate of virus and cell. [Rev Med Virol] Abstract

Immunological Strategies to Target HIV Persistence
Investigators review recent advances in harnessing effector cells of the immune system, including CD8+ T cells and natural killer cells, antiviral antibodies and new immunomodulatory molecules, to target HIV-1 persistence. [Curr Opin HIV AIDS] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.

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AmpliPhi Biosciences Presents Data Showing Bacteriophage Product Candidate Kills Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Cystic Fibrosis Patients
AmpliPhi Biosciences Corporation presented data summarizing both the in vitro and in vivo activity of its proprietary, investigational phage mix AB-PA01. [Press release from AmpliPhi Biosciences Corporation discussing research presented at the 26th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID), Amsterdam] Press Release | Poster

Merck Highlights Ongoing Commitment to Fighting Infectious Diseases with More Than 30 Data Presentations
Merck announced that researchers are scheduled to provide more than 30 scientific data presentations on the company’s established and investigational infectious disease medicines and vaccines. [Press release from Merck & Co., Inc. discussing research presented at the 26th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID), Amsterdam] Press Release

VIBATIV® (Telavancin) Shows Greater In Vitro Potency Against Difficult-to-Treat Pathogens Causing Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia, Including MRSA, Compared to Alternative Antibiotic Treatments
Theravance Biopharma, Inc. announced that new positive data from a study of VIBATIV®, the company’s FDA-approved antibiotic, were the focus of a poster presentation. Results from the study demonstrated that VIBATIV possessed potent in vitro activity against this broad range of Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). [Press release from Theravance Biopharma, Inc. discussing research presented at the 26th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID), Amsterdam] Press Release

Zika Virus May Now Be Tied to Another Brain Disease
The Zika virus may be associated with an autoimmune disorder that attacks the brain’s myelin similar to multiple sclerosis, according to a small study that will be presented. [Press release from the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) discussing research to be presented at the 68th AAN Annual Meeting, Vancouver] Press Release

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San Diego to be Research Hub for New Human Vaccines Project
Four scientific institutions – University of California, San Diego, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology and The Scripps Research Institute – have teamed up to create the “Mesa Consortium,” a new scientific hub for the Human Vaccines Project. [University of California, San Diego] Press Release

UC San Diego Scientists Receive $9.5 Million NIH Grant to Combat Antibiotic Resistance
Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have received a five-year, $9.5-million award from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to establish an interdisciplinary center to define the systems biology of antibiotic resistance. [University of California, San Diego] Press Release

A New Path to an AIDS Vaccine?
Two of the world’s top HIV prevention clinical trial networks have joined forces to test an experimental antibody that could potentially protect people from infection by almost all strains of the rapidly mutating virus that causes AIDS. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center] Press Release

Genvoya in HIV: Positive Effects Predominate in Some Adults, Negative Effects in Others
The German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care examined in an early benefit assessment whether the combination of the drugs elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide offers an added benefit for patients in comparison with the appropriate comparator therapy. [German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care] Press Release

Mymetics’ HIV Vaccine Candidate Confirms Promise in Preclinical Study with Texas Biomed
Mymetics Corporation announced that its innovative HIV vaccine candidate generated significant protection in groups of twelve female monkeys against repeated AIDS virus exposures during part of a preclinical study. [Texas Biomedical Research Institute] Press Release
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NEW Gordon Research Conference – Notch Signaling in Development, Regeneration & Disease
July 31-August 5, 2016
Lewiston, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
NEW Scientist – Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Researcher – HIV Biology (Johns Hopkins University)

Postdoctoral Positions – Human Immune System-Microbiota Crosstalk (Karolinska Institutet)

Postdoctoral Position – Hepatitis B Virus Infection (University of Strasbourg)

Postdoctoral Position – Dendritic Cells in Inflammation and Infection (Centre d’Immunologie de Marseille Luminy)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard)

Principal Investigators – Infectious Diseases (CCID)

Administrative Head – Vaccine and Infectious Disease (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Research Technician I – HIV Vaccine Trials (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

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