Volume 4.13 | Apr 6

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 4.13 April 6, 2016
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Scientists Get First-Ever Glimpse of ‘Teenage’ HIV-Neutralizing Antibody
Scientists have described the first-ever immature or “teenage” antibody found in a powerful class of immune molecules effective against HIV. [Press release from The Scripps Research Institute discussing online prepublication in Immunity] Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Innate Lymphocyte/Ly6Chi Monocyte Crosstalk Promotes Klebsiella pneumoniae Clearance
Scientists demonstrated that inflammatory monocytes are rapidly recruited to the lungs of K. pneumoniae-infected mice and produce TNF, which markedly increases the frequency of IL-17-producing innate lymphoid cells. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Diversification of the Antigen-Specific T Cell Receptor Repertoire after Varicella Zoster Vaccination
Researchers examined the T cell receptor diversity of varicella zoster virus (VZV)-reactive CD4 T cells in individuals older than 50 years by studying three identical twin pairs and three unrelated individuals before and after vaccination with live attenuated VZV. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract

Type III Interferons Produced by Human Placental Trophoblasts Confer Protection against Zika Virus Infection
Investigators discovered that primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells from full-term placentas are refractory to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. PHT cells constitutively release the type III interferon (IFN) IFNλ1, which functions in both a paracrine and autocrine manner to protect trophoblast and non-trophoblast cells from ZIKV infection. [Cell Host Microbe] Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Longitudinal Characterization of Dysfunctional T Cell-Activation during Human Acute Ebola Infection
Researchers evaluated the kinetics and functionality of T-cell subsets, as well as the expression of activation, autophagy, apoptosis and exhaustion markers during the acute phase of Ebola virus disease until recovery. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article


Bacteroides Are Associated with GALT iNKT Cell Function and Reduction of Microbial Translocation in HIV-1 Infection
Researchers showed that invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are found at a higher frequency in gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) compared with blood, particularly in HIV-1 elite controllers. [Mucosal Immunol] Full Article

The Plasma Levels of Soluble ST2 as a Marker of Gut Mucosal Damage in Early HIV Infection
Investigators assessed the relationship between the interleukin-33/ST2 axis and markers of gut mucosal damage in patients with early and chronic HIV infection and elite controllers. [AIDS] Abstract

Quantitation of Productively Infected Monocytes and Macrophages of SIV-Infected Macaques
To assess the contribution of productively infected monocytes and macrophages to HIV and SIV infected cells in vivo, researchers developed a quantitative virus outgrowth assay based on similar assays used to quantitate CD4+ T cell latent reservoirs in antiretroviral therapy suppressed HIV- and SIV-infected individuals. [J Virol] Abstract | Full Article

CCR5 Interaction with HIV-1 Env Contributes to Env-Induced Depletion of CD4 T Cells In Vitro and In Vivo
Scientists investigated CD4 T cell depletion mechanisms caused by the Env of a highly pathogenic CXCR4/CCR5 dual-tropic HIV-1 isolate R3A. They report that R3A infection induced depletion of both infected and uninfected “bystander” CD4 T cells, and treatment with CCR5 antagonist TAK-779 inhibited R3A-induced bystander CD4 T cell depletion without affecting virus replication. [Retrovirology] Full Article

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Immune Responses to Endogenous Retroelements: Taking the Bad with the Good
Although retroelements are mainly recognized for their pathogenic potential, recent evidence suggests that this ‘enemy within’ may also have beneficial roles in tuning host immune reactivity. In this review, investigators discuss how the immune system recognizes and is shaped by endogenous retroelements. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

DNA Immunization as a Technology Platform for Monoclonal Antibody Induction
The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of the literature describing the use of DNA immunization to produce highly functional monoclonal antibodies, in particular, those against emerging infectious diseases. [Emerg Microbes Infect] Full Article

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HIV-Positive Children and Adolescents: Added Benefit of Rilpivirine Not Proven
The German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care examined in an early benefit assessment whether rilpivirine has an added benefit for HIV-1-infected children and adolescents in comparison with the appropriate comparator therapy, i.e. the drug efavirenz in combination with abacavir plus lamivudine. According to the findings, such an added benefit of rilpivirine is not proven. [German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care] Press Release

Janssen to Unveil New Hepatitis B and C Data
Janssen Sciences Ireland UC announced it will present thirteen abstracts featuring new data on an investigational regimen for treatment of hepatitis B virus and approved and investigational regimens for the treatment of hepatitis C virus. [Press release from Janssen Sciences Ireland UC discussing research to be presented at the International Liver Congress™ 2016 of the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL), Barcelona] Press Release

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$10 Million Grant Funds Infection-Focused Center
A new center at Stanford will focus on understanding the interactions between salmonella bacteria and immune cells infected by the pathogen, as well as on treating such infections. [Stanford Medicine] Press Release

Vedanta Biosciences Announces License Agreement with RIKEN and Other Japanese Institutions for New Immune Boosting Microbiome Technology
Vedanta Biosciences announced a license agreement with RIKEN, the University of Tokyo and Azabu University for technology developed by RIKEN Team Leader and Vedanta Co-founder and Scientific Advisory Board Member, Kenya Honda, M.D., Ph.D. The new technology has potential clinical applications in infectious disease, vaccine design and immuno-oncology. [Vedanta Biosciences (Business Wire)] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

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Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW IDWeek 2016
October 26-30, 2016
New Orleans, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
NEW Postdoctoral Researcher – HIV Biology (Johns Hopkins University)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Positions – Human Immune System-Microbiota Crosstalk (Karolinska Institutet)

Research Associate – Susceptibility and Resistance to Helminth Infection (University of Glasgow)

Professorship – Medical Microbiology (Jena University Hospital)

Postdoctoral Position – Hepatitis B Virus Infection (University of Strasbourg)

Postdoctoral Position – Dendritic Cells in Inflammation and Infection (Centre d’Immunologie de Marseille Luminy)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard)

Principal Scientist – Infectious Disease (Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V.)

Principal Investigators – Infectious Diseases (CCID)

Administrative Head – Vaccine and Infectious Disease (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Research Technician I – HIV Vaccine Trials (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

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