Volume 4.12 | Mar 30

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 4.12 March 30, 2016
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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New Findings in Humans Provide Encouraging Foundation for Upcoming AIDS Vaccine Clinical Trial
Researchers found that the right precursor (“germline”) cells for one kind of HIV broadly neutralizing antibody are present in most people, and described the design of an HIV vaccine germline-targeting immunogen capable of binding those B cells. [Press release from The Scripps Research Institute discussing online publication in Science] Press Release 1 | Press Release 2 | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Output-Driven Feedback System Control Platform Optimizes Combinatorial Therapy of Tuberculosis Using a Macrophage Cell Culture Model
Scientists used an optimization platform, feedback system control methodology, to identify improved drug–dose combinations for tuberculosis (TB) treatment using a fluorescence-based human macrophage cell culture model of TB, in which macrophages are infected with isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside-inducible green fluorescent protein-expressing Mycobacterium tuberculosis. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release

Regulatory T Cells Are Essential to Promote Proper CD4 T-Cell Priming upon Mucosal Infection
Following herpes simplex virus-2 infection, mice lacking regulatory T cells (Tregs) fail to control viral replication, pointing to a role for Tregs in facilitating productive immune responses. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Curcumin Enhances Human Macrophage Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection
An in vitro human macrophage infection model was used to determine the effects of curcumin on M. tuberculosis (MTB) survival. Researchers found that curcumin enhanced the clearance of MTB in differentiated THP-1 human monocytes and in primary human alveolar macrophages. [Respirology]
Abstract | Press Release

A Novel Approach for Emerging and Antibiotic Resistant Infections: Innate Defense Regulators as an Agnostic Therapy
Researchers showed that the lead clinical innate defense regulator, SGX94, has broad-spectrum activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections caused by intracellular or extracellular bacteria and also complements the actions of standard of care antibiotics. [J Biotechnol] Full Article | Press Release


Multiplexed Affinity-Based Separation of Proteins and Cells Using Inertial Microfluidics
The authors present a method for rapid and multiplexed, yet inexpensive, affinity-based isolation of both proteins and cells, using a size-coded mixture of multiple affinity-capture microbeads and an inertial microfluidic particle sorter device. They used the technique to isolate low abundance antibodies specific to different HIV antigens and rare HIV-specific cells from blood obtained from HIV+ patients. [Sci Rep] Full Article

HIV-1-Mediated BAFF Secretion in Macrophages Does Not Require Endosomal TLRs, Type-I IFN, and Nef, but Depends on the Cellular Phenotype Status
Researchers investigated the ability of fully competent HIV-1 to induce BAFF production by monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). They demonstrated that HIV-1 drives BAFF production in MDMs in a type-I IFN– and TLR-independent manner. [J Immunol] Abstract

HIV Protease Inhibitor–Induced Cathepsin Modulation Alters Antigen Processing and Cross-Presentation
Investigators showed that HIV protease inhibitors prescribed to HIV-infected persons variably modulate cathepsin activities in human APCs, dendritic cells and macrophages, and CD4 T cells, three cell subsets infected by HIV. [J Immunol] Abstract

FOXP3+Helios+ Regulatory T Cells, Immune Activation and Advancing Disease in HIV Infected Children
Scientists evaluated regulatory T cells (Tregs) subsets by FOXP3 co-expressed with either CD25 or Helios and their association with HIV disease progression in perinatally-infected HIV positive children. Identifying Tregs by FOXP3 coexpression with Helios rather than CD25 revealed markedly higher Treg frequencies, particularly in HIV+ children. [J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr] Abstract

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Diversity of HIV-1 Reservoirs in CD4+ T-Cell Subpopulations
Identification of CD4+ T-cell subtypes that serve as hotspots for viral persistence may be critical for designing strategies to purge the immune system of persisting viral reservoirs. [Curr Opin HIV AIDS] Abstract

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UCI Scientists Receive $8 Million to Help Develop Q Fever Vaccine
A University of California, Irvine scientific team led by infectious diseases researchers Philip Felgner and Aaron Esser-Kahn has received $8 million from the U.S. Department of Defense’s Defense Threat Reduction Agency to help develop a new vaccine for Q fever. [University of California, Irvine] Press Release

Aduro Biotech Helps Launch New Immunotherapy, Vaccine Effort
UC Berkeley cancer immunologists are teaming up with colleagues working on infectious disease to create a new Immunotherapeutics and Vaccine Research Initiative, fueled by $7.5 million in funding from Aduro Biotech Inc. [University of California, Berkeley] Press Release | Video

Temple Researchers to Explore Ability of Novel Compounds to Protect Brain against HIV Infection with New NIH Grant
A group of compounds known as cannabinoid receptor type 2 agonists may be able to stop HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder from developing, and, thanks to new funding from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, researchers at the Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University are poised to investigate that possibility. [Temple University] Press Release

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June 13-14, 2016
London, United Kingdom

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NEW Postdoctoral Positions – Human Immune System-Microbiota Crosstalk (Karolinska Institutet)

NEW Research Associate – Susceptibility and Resistance to Helminth Infection (University of Glasgow)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Professorship – Medical Microbiology (Jena University Hospital)

Postdoctoral Position – Hepatitis B Virus Infection (University of Strasbourg)

Postdoctoral Position – Dendritic Cells in Inflammation and Infection (Centre d’Immunologie de Marseille Luminy)

Postdoctoral Position – Innate Immunity (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Responses to Vaccines (Boston Children’s Hospital)

Principal Scientist – Infectious Disease (Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V.)

Principal Investigators – Infectious Diseases (CCID)

Administrative Head – Vaccine and Infectious Disease (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Research Technician I – HIV Vaccine Trials (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

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