Volume 4.11 | Mar 23

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 4.11 March 23, 2016
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Giving Antibodies to Infant Macaques Exposed to an HIV-Like Virus Could Clear the Infection
Scientists revealed that infant rhesus macaques treated with antibodies within 24 hours of being exposed to SHIV, a chimeric simian virus that bears the HIV envelope protein, were completely cleared of the virus. [Press release from Oregon Health & Science University discussing online prepublication in Nature Medicine]
Press Release | Abstract
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A Phosphomimetic-Based Mechanism of Dengue Virus to Antagonize Innate Immunity
Scientists found that the NS3 protein of dengue virus (DV) bound to 14-3-3ε and prevented translocation of RIG-I to the adaptor MAVS and thereby blocked antiviral signaling. A recombinant mutant DV deficient in binding to 14-3-3ε showed impairment in antagonism of RIG-I and elicited a markedly augmented innate immune response and enhanced T cell activation. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

The Live Attenuated Dengue Vaccine TV003 Elicits Complete Protection against Dengue in a Human Challenge Model
To better assess the protective efficacy of TV003, a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which recipients of TV003 or placebo were challenged six months later with a DENV-2 strain, rDEN2Δ30, was conducted. The primary endpoint of the trial was protection against dengue infection, defined as rDEN2Δ30 viremia. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

Rapid and Long-Term Immunity Elicited by DNA Encoded Antibody Prophylaxis and DNA Vaccination against Chikungunya Virus
An antibody-based prophylaxis/therapy entailing the electroporation-mediated delivery of synthetic plasmids, encoding biologically active anti-Chikungunya virus envelope mAb, was designed and evaluated for anti-viral efficacy as well as for the ability to overcome shortcomings inherent with conventional active vaccination by a novel passive immune-based strategy. [J Infect Dis] Abstract | Press Release


Guanylate Binding Protein (GBP) 5 Is an Interferon-Inducible Inhibitor of HIV-1 Infectivity
Researchers showed that GBP5 potently restricts HIV-1 and other retroviruses. GBP5 is expressed in the primary target cells of HIV-1, where it impairs viral infectivity by interfering with the processing and virion incorporation of the viral envelope glycoprotein. [Cell Host Microbe] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

In Vivo Molecular Dissection of the Effects of HIV-1 in Active Tuberculosis
Scientists hypothesized that HIV-1 and antiretroviral therapy exert widespread changes to cell mediated immunity, which may compromise the optimal host protective response to tuberculosis and provide novel insights into the correlates of immune protection and pathogenesis. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Press Release

HIV-1 Cellular and Tissue Replication Patterns in Infected Humanized Mice
Researchers examined tissue sites for viral infection in bone marrow, blood, spleens, liver, gut, brain, kidney and lungs of human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell engrafted virus-infected NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ mice. The cell distribution and viral life cycle were found dependent on the tissue compartment and time of infection. [Sci Rep] Full Article

A Long-Acting Formulation of the Integrase Inhibitor Raltegravir Protects Humanized BLT Mice from Repeated High-Dose Vaginal HIV Challenges
Long-acting injectable antiretroviral drugs provide sustained systemic drug exposures over many weeks and can improve adherence due to infrequent parenteral administration. Investigators evaluated a new long-acting formulation of raltegravir for prevention of vaginal HIV transmission. [J Antimicrob Chemother]
Abstract | Press Release

Maturational Characteristics of HIV-Specific Antibodies in Viremic Individuals
HIV-infected individuals with chronic HIV viremia have elevated numbers of nonconventional tissue-like memory B cells that predominate in blood over conventional resting memory B cells. Accordingly, scientists investigated affinity maturation in these two memory B cell populations. [JCI Insight]
Full Article | Press Release 1 | Press Release 2

Innate Immune Reconstitution with Suppression of HIV-1
Using a cohort of patients with multiple samplings before and after antiretroviral therapy initiation, investigators demonstrated increased responses to innate immune stimuli following viral suppression, as measured by the production of inflammatory cytokines. [JCI Insight] Full Article | Press Release

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Approaches to Preventative and Therapeutic HIV Vaccines
Novel strategies are being researched to discover vaccines to prevent and treat HIV-1. Non-efficacious preventative vaccine approaches include bivalent recombinant gp120 alone, HIV gene insertion into an Adenovirus 5 virus vector and the DNA prime/Ad5 boost vaccine regimen. [Curr Opin Virol] Full Article

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Pfizer Joins the Human Vaccines Project to Help Decode the Immune System
Pfizer Inc. announced it will join the Human Vaccines Project, a public-private consortium focused on cross-sector collaboration to identify human immune responses associated with optimal vaccine protection. Insights gained will guide the development of potentially improved vaccines against diseases such as influenza, dengue, HIV and other infectious illnesses as well as cancer. [Pfizer Inc.] Press Release

Southern Research Scientists Develop an Assay to Find a Cure for Zika
Southern Research announced the development of a unique antiviral assay – a test that can be used by researchers worldwide to detect the virus in infected cell cultures. In addition, Southern Research is working to develop in vivo models that can be used to evaluate vaccines and therapeutic approaches aimed at preventing the further spread of Zika virus disease. [Southern Research] Press Release

bioLytical Completes Proof of Concept on 60 Second Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya Diagnostic Tests
bioLytical Laboratories has successfully developed a pre-clinical prototype assay for the detection of antibodies to the Zika virus. The test is able to detect anti-Zika antibodies in patient samples collected shortly after the onset of symptoms, indicating detection of IgM, which is critical for identification of early stages of infection. [bioLytical Laboratories] Press Release

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NEW 3rd Annual Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Asia Congress 2016
October 11-12, 2016
Singapore, Singapore

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
NEW Professorship – Medical Microbiology (Jena University Hospital)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Hepatitis B Virus Infection (University of Strasbourg)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Dendritic Cells in Inflammation and Infection (Centre d’Immunologie de Marseille Luminy)

Postdoctoral Position – Innate Immunity (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Responses to Vaccines (Boston Children’s Hospital)

Principal Scientist – Infectious Disease (Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Drug Delivery for HIV (Northwestern University)

Principal Investigators – Infectious Diseases (CCID)

Administrative Head – Vaccine and Infectious Disease (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Research Technician I – HIV Vaccine Trials (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

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