Volume 4.08 | Mar 2

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 4.08 March 2, 2016
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Experimental Ebola Antibody Protects Monkeys
Scientists discovered that a single monoclonal antibody—a protein that attacks viruses—isolated from a human Ebola virus disease survivor protected non-human primates when given as late as five days after lethal Ebola infection. [Press release from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases discussing online publication in Science] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
MicroRNA-23a Curbs Necrosis during Early T Cell Activation by Enforcing Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species Equilibrium
Researchers determined that miR-23a is indispensable for effector CD4+ T cell expansion, particularly by providing early protection from excessive necrosis. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Fungal Mimicry of a Mammalian Aminopeptidase Disables Innate Immunity and Promotes Pathogenicity
Investigators report that the pathogenic yeast of Blastomyces dermatitidis elaborates dipeptidyl-peptidase IVA (DppIVA), a close mimic of the mammalian ectopeptidase CD26, which modulates critical aspects of hematopoiesis. Yeast producing DppIVA crippled the recruitment and differentiation of monocytes and prevented phagocyte activation and ROS production. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Identifying Protective Streptococcus pyogenes Vaccine Antigens Recognized by Both B and T Cells in Human Adults and Children
The authors selected 21 antigens based on an in silico evaluation. The antigens were tested for both antibody recognition and T cell responses in human adults and children. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Staphylococcus aureus-Derived Factors Induce IL-10, IFN-γ and IL-17A-Expressing FOXP3+CD161+ T‑Helper Cells in a Partly Monocyte-Dependent Manner
Scientists aimed to investigate how S. aureus impacts the production of regulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines and the expression of CD161 and HELIOS by peripheral CD4+FOXP3+ T-cells. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Phase I/IIa Trial of Plasmodium vivax Malaria Vaccine Candidate VMP001/AS01B in Malaria-Naive Adults: Safety, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy
Investigators conducted a first-in-human Phase I dose escalation vaccine study with controlled human malaria infection of vivax malaria protein 1 (VMP001) formulated in the GSK Adjuvant System AS01B. All volunteers generated robust humoral and cellular immune responses to the vaccine antigen. [PLoS Negl Trop Dis] Full Article | Press Release


CXCL13 Is a Plasma Biomarker of Germinal Center Activity
Scientists found that plasma CXCL13 (chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 13) levels correlated with germinal center activity in draining lymph nodes of immunized mice, immunized macaques, and HIV-infected humans. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

IL-7 Induces SAMHD1 Phosphorylation in CD4+ T Lymphocytes, Improving Early Steps of HIV-1 Life Cycle
The authors determined that both interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IL-7 induced SAMHD1 phosphorylation in T592, abrogating its antiviral activity. However, IL-7 caused a much more profound stimulatory effect on HIV-1 reverse transcription and integration than IL-2 that required chemokine co-stimulation. [Cell Rep]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract

HIV Skews the Lineage-Defining Transcriptional Profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis–Specific CD4+ T Cells
To define the diversity of M. tuberculosis–specific CD4+ Th subsets and determine whether HIV infection impacts such responses, the expression of lineage-defining transcription factors T-bet, Gata3, RORγt, and Foxp3 was measured in M. tuberculosis–specific CD4+ T cells in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected individuals with latent tuberculosis infection. [J Immunol] Abstract

Combined Action of Anti-CD4 Autoantibodies and Rheumatoid Factor in the Development of CD4 Lymphocytopenia in Rats Immunized with HIV-1 gp120
Researchers examined the role of anti-CD4 autoantibodies and physiological rheumatoid factor in the development of CD4+ lymphocytopenia. Immunization of Wistar rats with gp120 HIV-1 induced chronic production of anti-CD4 autoantibodies and decreased CD4+ lymphocytes in the blood. [AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses] Abstract

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HIV-Host Interactions: Implications for Vaccine Design
Breakthroughs in understanding of the biology of the transmitted virus, the structure and nature of its envelope trimer, vaccine-induced CD8 T cell control in primates, and host control of broadly neutralizing antibody elicitation have given rise to new vaccine strategies. Despite this promise, emerging data from preclinical trials reinforce the need for additional insight into virus—host biology in order to facilitate the development of a successful vaccine. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract

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Immunotherapy Agent Can Disrupt Viral Reservoir in SIV-Infected Monkeys
An immune-enhancing treatment can push SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus) out of its hideouts in infected monkeys that have the virus controlled with drugs. [Press release from Emory University discussing research presented at the 23rd Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), Boston] Press Release

Gilead Announces Preclinical Data for an Investigational TLR7 Agonist in SIV-Infected, Virally Suppressed Monkeys
Gilead Sciences, Inc. announced results from a preclinical study conducted in collaboration with researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center evaluating a proprietary investigational oral toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist and analogue of GS-9620 as part of an HIV eradication strategy. [Press release from Gilead Sciences, Inc. discussing research presented at the 23rd Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), Boston] Press Release

EnteraGam® (Serum-Derived Bovine Immunoglobulin/Protein Isolate, SBI) Results Presented on Reduction of Immune Activation in Patients with HIV-Associated Enteropathy
Entera Health, Inc. announced additional results from a multi-center study evaluating the impact of SBI in patients with HIV-associated enteropathy and on long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy. [Press release from Entera Health, Inc. discussing research presented at the 23rd Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), Boston] Press Release

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U.S. Food and Drug Administration Approves Gilead’s Second TAF-Based Single Tablet Regimen Odefsey® (Emtricitabine, Rilpivirine, Tenofovir Alafenamide) for the Treatment of HIV-1 Infection
Gilead Sciences, Inc. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved Odefsey® for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in certain patients. [Gilead Sciences, Inc.] Press Release

Gilead Launches New Grants Program to Support HIV Cure
Gilead Sciences, Inc. announced it will be providing grants for up to three years to academic institutions, nonprofit organizations and community groups engaged in HIV cure activities. The unrestricted grants will be awarded to organizations with a track record of excellence in results-driven research. [Gilead Sciences, Inc.] Press Release
NIH’s 10% Set-Aside for AIDS Begins to Slip in 2016
After more than 20 years of holding HIV/AIDS research funding at a fixed 10% of its overall budget, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will let that level slip this year. Newly public data on grant funding success rates reflect one impetus for abandoning the set-aside: At many institutes, AIDS grants have been much easier to get than non-AIDS funding, suggesting that officials were struggling to find ways to spend the money. [ScienceInsider] Editorial

Zika Researchers Release Real-Time Data on Viral Infection Study in Monkeys
Researchers in the United States who have infected monkeys with Zika virus made their first data public. But instead of publishing them in a journal, they have released them online for anyone to view — and are updating their results day by day. [Nature News] Editorial

Zika Epidemic Highlights Need for Priority Vaccine Research and Guidelines for Pregnant Women
The recent outbreak of Zika virus disease and its link to fetal development highlights the need for pregnant women and those of reproductive age to be a priority group for developing and evaluating new vaccines and vaccine guidelines for Zika and other emerging infectious diseases. [Emory University] Editorial

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European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 2016 Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases (ASID) Annual Scientific Meeting
April 20-23, 2016
Launceston, Australia

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NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Responses to Vaccines (Boston Children’s Hospital)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Mucosal Infection and Inflammation Center (Linköping University)

Principal Scientist – Infectious Disease (Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Drug Delivery for HIV (Northwestern University)

Principal Investigators – Infectious Diseases (CCID)

Administrative Head – Vaccine and Infectious Disease (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Senior Scientist – Immunology (Bavarian Nordic GmbH)

Global Medical Leader – Infectious Diseases (F. Hoffmann-La Roche)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Indiana University School of Medicine)

Research Technician I – HIV Vaccine Trials (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

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