Volume 4.06 | Feb 17

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 4.06 February 17, 2016
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Broadly Targeted CD8+ T Cell Responses Restricted by Major Histocompatibility Complex E
Investigators found that vaccinating rhesus macaques with rhesus cytomegalovirus vectors in which genes Rh157.5 and Rh157.4 are deleted results in major histocompatibility complex E–restricted presentation of highly varied peptide epitopes to CD8αβ+ T cells. [Science] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
In Vivo Killing Capacity of Cytotoxic T Cells Is Limited and Involves Dynamic Interactions and T Cell Cooperativity
Researchers used two-photon microscopy to quantify cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated killing in mice infected with herpesviruses or poxviruses. During killing, CTLs remained migratory and formed motile kinapses rather than static synapses with targets. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Genomic Modifiers of Natural Killer Cells, Immune Responsiveness and Lymphoid Tissue Remodeling Together Increase Host Resistance to Viral Infection
Scientists applied genomic mapping strategies and multicolor flow cytometric analysis of immune cells in naive and virus-infected hosts to identify genetic modifiers of the host immune response to murine cytomegalovirus. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Press Release

IL-4-Producing ILC2s Are Required for the Differentiation of TH2 Cells following Heligmosomoides polygyrus Infection
Using H. polygyrus, which is controlled by IL-4-dependent immunity, researchers identified that group-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) produced significant amounts of IL-4 and IL-2 following H. polygyrus infection. [Mucosal Immunol] Full Article

IGHV1-69 Polymorphism Modulates Anti-Influenza Antibody Repertoires, Correlates with IGHV Utilization Shifts and Varies by Ethnicity
Researchers studied a cohort of NIH H5N1 vaccinees and demonstrate for the first time the influence of IGHV1‑69 polymorphism on V-segment usage, somatic hypermutation and B cell expansion that elucidates the dominance of F-alleles in HV1-69-sBnAbs. [Sci Rep] Full Article | Press Release

Cryptococcus neoformans Thermotolerance to Avian Body Temperature Is Sufficient for Extracellular Growth but Not Intracellular Survival In Macrophages
Scientists found that bird macrophages are able to suppress the growth of cryptococci seen in mammalian cells despite C. neoformans being able to grow at bird body temperature, and are able to escape from bird macrophages by vomocytosis. [Sci Rep] Full Article | Press Release


Fc Receptor-Mediated Phagocytosis in Tissues as a Potent Mechanism for Preventive and Therapeutic HIV Vaccine Strategies
Scientists aimed to define the landscape of effector cells and Fc receptors present within vulnerable tissues. They found negligible Fc receptor-expressing natural killer cells in the female reproductive and gastrointestinal mucosa. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

CCR6 Regulatory T Cells Blunt the Restoration of Gut Th17 Cells along the CCR6–CCL20 Axis in Treated HIV-1-Infected Individuals
Investigators showed that the CCR6–CCL20 chemotactic axis is altered, with reduced CCL20 production by small intestine epithelial cells in treated HIV-1-infected individuals. This leads to impaired CCR6+CD4+ T-cell homing, particularly T helper type 17 (Th17) cells, to the small intestine mucosa. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Streamlining Heterologous DNA-Prime and NYVAC/Protein-Boost HIV Vaccine Regimens in Rhesus Macaques by Employing Improved Antigens
Investigators assessed in non-human primates whether such vaccination regimens can be further streamlined using fewer and accelerated immunizations when employing a novel generation of improved DNA-C and NYVAC-C vaccine candidates designed for higher expression levels and more balanced immune responses. [J Virol] Abstract

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HIV-1 Reservoirs During Suppressive Therapy
Over the past few years, significant progress has been made in defining and characterizing the latent reservoir of HIV-1, and the authors review how understanding the latent reservoir during suppressive therapy will lead to significant advances in curative approaches for HIV-1. [Trends Microbiol] Abstract

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Regeneron Joins Human Vaccines Project to Improve Global Disease Prevention and Treatment
Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc. announced that it has joined the Human Vaccines Project, a public-private partnership to help discover and develop new vaccines and immunotherapies for infectious diseases and cancer. [Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc.] Press Release

Dutch Academic Institutions Combine Research into Infectious Disease and Antibiotic Resistance
Experts in the areas of human and animal health at Utrecht University, University Medical Center Utrecht, Wageningen UR, Erasmus MC and the Academic Medical Center Amsterdam joined forces in a new virtual research center. Edith Schippers, Dutch Minister of Health, Welfare and Sports, has opened this Netherlands Center for One Health. [Utrecht University Medical Center] Press Release

U.S. FDA Approves Two Supplemental Indications for Harvoni® in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients with Advanced Liver Disease
Gilead Sciences, Inc. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved additional indications for Harvoni® (ledipasvir/sofosbuvir) for use in chronic hepatitis C patients with advanced liver disease. [Gilead Sciences, Inc.] Press Release

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April 9-12, 2016
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NEW Principal Scientist – Infectious Disease (Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V.)

NEW Faculty Position – Virology (Rush University Medical Center)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Drug Delivery for HIV (Northwestern University)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Principal Investigators – Infectious Diseases (CCID)

Administrative Head – Vaccine and Infectious Disease (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Senior Scientist – Immunology (Bavarian Nordic GmbH)

Global Medical Leader – Infectious Diseases (F. Hoffmann-La Roche)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Indiana University School of Medicine)

Research Technician I – HIV Vaccine Trials (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

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