Volume 4.03 | Jan 27

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 4.03 January 27, 2016
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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TOP STORY
Antibodies May Be ‘Silver Bullet’ for Ebola Viruses
Researchers have isolated human monoclonal antibodies from Ebola survivors that can neutralize multiple species of the virus. [Press release from Vanderbilt University discussing online prepublication in Cell] Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
CXCR1-Mediated Neutrophil Degranulation and Fungal Killing Promote Candida Clearance and Host Survival
Using a mouse model of systemic candidiasis, scientists found that the neutrophil-selective CXC chemokine receptor Cxcr1 and its ligand, Cxcl5, are highly induced in the Candida-infected kidney, the target organ in the model. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract

Antigen Export Reduces Antigen Presentation and Limits T Cell Control of M. tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens are exported from infected dendritic cells (DCs) and taken up and presented by uninfected DCs, possibly overcoming a blockade of antigen presentation by infected cells. Investigators showed that the first stage of this antigen transfer, antigen export, benefits M. tuberculosis by diverting bacterial proteins from the antigen presentation pathway. [Cell Host Microbe]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Dysbiosis-Induced IL-33 Contributes to Impaired Antiviral Immunity in the Genital Mucosa
Investigators demonstrated that dysbiosis caused by oral antibiotic treatment directly impairs antiviral immunity following viral infection of the vaginal mucosa. Innate immune responses, including type I IFN and proinflammatory cytokine production at infection sites, as well as induction of virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses in draining lymph nodes, were not impaired in antibiotic-treated mice. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

L-selectin Is Essential for Delivery of Activated CD8+ T Cells to Virus-Infected Organs for Protective Immunity
The authors report that, although L-selectin expression is downregulated following T cell priming in lymph nodes, L-selectin is re-expressed on activated CD8+ T cells entering the bloodstream, and recruitment of activated CD8+ T cells from the bloodstream into virus-infected tissues is L-selectin dependent. [Cell Rep]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Neuroinvasive West Nile Infection Elicits Elevated and Atypically Polarized T Cell Responses that Promote a Pathogenic Outcome
Scientists demonstrated that elevated immune responses are present in neuroinvasive disease by directly characterizing West Nile virus-specific T cells in subjects with laboratory documented infections using human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen class II tetramers. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Press Release

Different Human Vaccine Adjuvants Promote Distinct Antigen-Independent Immunological Signatures Tailored to Different Pathogens
Researchers performed a head-to-head comparison of five different adjuvants Alum, MF59®, GLA-SE, IC31® and CAF01 in mice and combined these with antigens from M. tuberculosis, influenza, and chlamydia to test immune-profiles and efficacy in infection models using standardized protocols. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Virus-Specific Antibodies Allow Viral Replication in the Marginal Zone, Thereby Promoting CD8+ T-Cell Priming and Viral Control
Investigators used the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) to determine whether enforced virus replication occurs in the presence of virus-specific antibodies or virus-specific CD8+ T cells. They found that after systemic recall infection with LCMV-WE the presence of virus-specific antibodies allowed intracellular replication of virus in the marginal zone of spleen. [Sci Rep] Full Article

HIV

Broadly Targeted CD8+ T Cell Responses Restricted by Major Histocompatibility Complex E
Researchers found that vaccination of rhesus macaques with ΔRh157.5/.4 rhesus cytomegalovirus vectors results in major histocompatibility complex-E-restricted presentation of highly varied peptide epitopes to
CD8α/β+ T cells. [Science]
Abstract

CRISPR-Cas9 Can Inhibit HIV-1 Replication but NHEJ Repair Facilitates Virus Escape
Researchers demonstrated profound inhibition of HIV-1 replication by harnessing T cells with Cas9 and antiviral guide RNAs. However, the virus rapidly and consistently escaped from this inhibition. [Mol Ther] Full Article

Control of HIV-1 Replication In Vitro by Vaccine-Induced Human CD8+ T Cells through Conserved Subdominant Pol Epitopes
Researchers demonstrated that the vaccine-elicited inhibitory human CD8+ T cells recognized conserved epitopes of both Pol and Gag proteins. These results implicated the use of functionally conserved regions of Pol in addition to the widely used Gag for T-cell vaccine design. [Vaccine] Full Article

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REVIEWS
Transkingdom Control of Viral Infection and Immunity in the Mammalian Intestine
The authors explore the interplay between viruses, the microbiota, and host immune responses. They highlight how transkingdom interactions influence infection with mammalian enteric viruses, including pathogens. [Science] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Engineering Foe into Friend
With the support of the Bose Grant, Jacquin Niles aims to re-engineer the malaria parasite into a medical tool and provide a novel way to deliver therapeutic drugs over the next three years. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology] Press Release

GeneOne Life Science and Inovio Pharmaceuticals to Collaborate on Zika Virus Vaccine Development
GeneOne Life Science announced the initiation of a collaborative research program with Inovio Pharmaceuticals to test and advance a DNA-based vaccine for preventing and treating the emerging and virulent Zika virus infection. [GeneOne Life Science (Globe Newswire, Inc.)] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
Osborne and Gates Pledge Cash to Beat Malaria
Chancellor George Osborne and philanthropist Bill Gates have announced £3 billion in funding over the next five years to tackle malaria. Britain will give £500 million a year from its overseas aid budget and The Gates Foundation will give $200 million (£140 million), with other donations of at least £110 million to follow in the next five years. [BBC News] Editorial

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 34th Annual Meeting of the European Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases (ESPID 2016)
May 10-14, 2016
Brighton, United Kingdom

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Global Medical Leader – Infectious Diseases (F. Hoffmann-La Roche)

NEW Professor – Highly Infectious Diseases (Pennsylvania State University)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Bacterial Infection in the Context of Antimicrobial Resistance (Imperial College London)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunological Impact of Endogenous Retroviruses (The Francis Crick Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Indiana University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Host-Microbial Interactions (University of Oxford)

Postdoctoral Position – Hantavirus and Inflammation Research (Karolinska Institutet)

Postdoctoral Position – Innate Immunity (Umeå University)

Group Leader – Infection and Immunity (Monash University)

Research Technician I – HIV Vaccine Trials (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)


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