Volume 4.02 | Jan 20

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 4.02 January 20, 2016
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Genetic and Metabolic Signals during Acute Enteric Bacterial Infection Alter the Microbiota and Drive Progression to Chronic Inflammatory Disease
Researchers uncovered an altered cellular immune response that promotes the recruitment of neutrophils which in turn increases metabolism of the respiratory electron acceptor tetrathionate by Yersinia. [Cell Host Microbe]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Homeostatic Control of Innate Lung Inflammation by Vici Syndrome Gene Epg5 and Additional Autophagy Genes Promotes Influenza Pathogenesis
Investigators found that Epg5-deficient mice exhibited elevated baseline innate immune cellular and cytokine-based lung inflammation and were resistant to lethal influenza virus infection. [Cell Host Microbe]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Pre-Vaccination Inflammation and B-Cell Signaling Predict Age-Related Hyporesponse to Hepatitis B Vaccination
Scientists showed, using transcriptional and cytometric profiling of whole blood collected before vaccination, that heightened expression of genes that augment B-cell responses and higher memory B-cell frequencies correlate with stronger responses to hepatitis B virus vaccine. [Nat Commun] Full Article | Press Release

PI5P Triggers ICAM-1 Degradation in Shigella Infected Cells, Thus Dampening Immune Cell Recruitment
Scientists showed that Shigella subverts the subcellular trafficking of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), a key molecule in immune cell recruitment, in a mechanism dependent on the injected bacterial enzyme IpgD and its product, the lipid mediator PI5P. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Down Regulated lncRNA MEG3 Eliminates Mycobacteria in Macrophages via Autophagy
Researchers provide an insight into the role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in mycobacterial infections. Human macrophages were infected with Mycobacterium bovis BCG and lncRNA expression was studied early post infection. [Sci Rep] Full Article


Antibiotic and Antiinflammatory Therapy Transiently Reduces Inflammation and Hypercoagulation in Acutely SIV-Infected Pigtailed Macaques
Rifaximin+Sulfasalazine administration during acute SIVsab infection of pigtailed macaques resulted in significantly lower microbial translocation, lower systemic immune activation, lower viral replication, better preservation of mucosal CD4+ T cells and significantly lower levels of hypercoagulation biomarkers. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

HIV-1 Env Glycoprotein Phenotype along with Immune Activation Determines CD4 T Cell Loss in HIV Patients
Using samples derived from HIV-infected patients, scientists demonstrated that, although immune activation in both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets correlates with CD4 decline, apoptosis in CD4+ and not CD8+ cells is associated with disease progression. [J Immunol] Abstract

Enhancement of HIV-1 Infection and Intestinal CD4+ T Cell Depletion Ex Vivo by Gut Microbes Altered during Chronic HIV-1 Infection
Researchers investigated the impact of representative bacterial species that were altered in the colonic mucosa of viremic HIV-1 infected individuals on intestinal CD4 T cell function, infection by HIV-1, and survival in vitro. [Retrovirology] Full Article

Nanotechnology as a New Therapeutic Approach to Prevent the HIV-Infection of Treg Cells
The authors investigated the antiviral capacity of carboxilan dendrimers to prevent HIV-1 infection of regulatory T cells (Treg) and their effects. The phenotype and suppressive capacity of Treg treated or non-treated with carbosilane dendrimers were studied by flow cytometry. [PLoS One] Full Article

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Potential of Radiation-Induced Cellular Stress for Reactivation of Latent HIV-1 and Killing of Infected Cells
The authors consider the potential application of therapeutic doses of irradiation, the well-known and effective stress signal that induces DNA damage and activates cellular stress response, to resolve two problems: activate HIV-1 replication and virion production in persistent reservoirs under cART and deplete infected cells via the selective cell killing using DNA damage responses. [AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses] Abstract

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Wayne State Receives $1.9 Million NIH Award to Aid in Treatment of Life-Threatening Infections Caused by Antibiotic-Resistant Enterococci Bacteria
Michael Rybak, Pharm. D., M.P.H., received a five-year, $1.9 million grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). His research project aims to further explore treatment of Enterococcus faecium in the hospital setting. [Wayne State University] Press Release

Dengue Vaccine Enters Phase III Trial in Brazil
A large-scale clinical trial to evaluate whether a candidate vaccine can prevent the mosquito-borne illness dengue fever has been launched in Brazil. The vaccine, TV003, was developed by scientists in the laboratory of Stephen Whitehead, Ph.D., at NIH’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. [National Institutes of Health] Press Release

Profectus BioSciences Initiates Ebola Vaccine Phase I Clinical Trial
Profectus BioSciences, Inc. announced the initiation of a Phase I clinical study of Profectus’ VesiculoVax™-vectored Ebola virus vaccine. The vaccine is a version of the company’s patented VSV vector that has been engineered for safe use in humans and to express the surface protein of Ebola virus. [Profectus BioSciences, Inc.] Press Release

Telephus Medical LLC Announces Issuance of Japanese Patent for Anti-MRSA Antibodies
Telephus Medical LLC announced that the Japan Patent Office has issued Japanese patent number 5,837,215 covering monoclonal antibody compositions that bind and neutralize the endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase subunit of staphylococcal bifunctional autolysin and methods to use those antibodies for the treatment and prevention of severe, life-threatening staph infections, including those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). [Telephus Medical LLC (Business WIre)] Press Release

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NEW 17th International Congress on Infectious Diseases (ICID)
March 2-5, 2016
Hyderabad, India

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NEW Research Associate – Bacterial Infection in the Context of Antimicrobial Resistance (Imperial College London)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immunological Impact of Endogenous Retroviruses (The Francis Crick Institute)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Indiana University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Host-Microbial Interactions (University of Oxford)

Research Associate – African trypanosomes Immune Evasion (Imperial College London)

Postdoctoral Position – Hantavirus and Inflammation Research (Karolinska Institutet)

Postdoctoral Position – Innate Immunity (Umeå University)

Group Leader – Infection and Immunity (Monash University)

Research Technician I – HIV Vaccine Trials (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

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