Volume 4.01 | Jan 13

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 4.01 January 13, 2016
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Killer Lymphocytes Use Granulysin, Perforin and Granzymes to Kill Intracellular Parasites
Researchers showed that granulysin delivers granzymes (Gzms) into three protozoan parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania major), in which the Gzms generate superoxide and inactivate oxidative defense enzymes to kill the parasite. [Nat Med] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Eosinophils and IL-4 Support Nematode Growth Coincident with an Innate Response to Tissue Injury
Scientists investigated the mechanism underlying the observation that eosinophils promote growth of Trichinella spiralis larvae in skeletal muscle. Their results indicate that IL-4 and eosinophils are necessary for normal larval growth and that eosinophils from IL-4 competent mice are sufficient to support growth. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Coordinate Actions of Innate Immune Responses Oppose Those of the Adaptive Immune System during Salmonella Infection of Mice
Researchers used the heterogeneous responses of mice to persistent Salmonella infection to model system-wide coordination of the immune response to bacterial burden. They hypothesized that the variability in outcomes of bacterial growth and immune response across genetically identical mice could be used to identify immune elements that serve as integrators enabling co-regulation and interconnectedness of the innate and adaptive immune systems. [Sci Signal] Abstract

Bispecific Antibody Affords Complete Post-Exposure Protection of Mice from Both Ebola (Zaire) and Sudan Viruses
Scientists used antibody engineering to develop novel bispecific antibodies (Bis-mAbs) that are cross-reactive toward base epitopes on glycoprotein (GP) from Ebola and Sudan viruses (EBOV and SUDV, respectively). These Bis-mAbs exhibit potent neutralization against EBOV and SUDV GP pseudotyped viruses as well as authentic pathogens, and confer a high degree post-exposure protection of mice from both viruses. [Sci Rep]
Full Article | Press Release

Trypanosoma cruzi Experimental Infection Impacts on the Thymic Regulatory T Cell Compartment
Considering the lack of available data about the effect of T. cruzi infection upon thymic-derived regulatory T cells (tTregs), researchers examined tTreg dynamics during the course of disease. [PLoS Negl Trop Dis] Full Article

Nasal Vaccination Stimulates CD8+ T Cells for Potent Protection against Mucosal Brucella melitensis Challenge
Using a nasal vaccination approach, the ΔznuA B. melitensis was found to confer potent protection against pulmonary Brucella challenge, and reduce colonization of spleens and lungs by more than 2500-fold. Furthermore, tenfold more brucellae-specific, IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells than CD4+ T cells were induced in the spleen and respiratory lymph nodes. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract


Circulating HIV-Specific Interleukin-21+CD4+ T Cells Represent Peripheral Tfh Cells with Antigen-Dependent Helper Functions
Investigators assessed circulating HIV-specific IL-21+CD4+ T cells and showed transcriptional and phenotypic similarities to lymphoid T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, and hence representing peripheral Tfh (pTfh) cells. pTfh cells were functionally active and B cell helper quality differed depending on antigen specificity. [Immunity] Abstract

TIGIT Marks Exhausted T Cells, Correlates with Disease Progression, and Serves as a Target for Immune Restoration in HIV and SIV Infection
The authors report that effector CD8+ T cells during HIV infection in blood and SIV infection in lymphoid tissue exhibit higher levels of the negative checkpoint receptor TIGIT. Increased frequencies of TIGIT+ and TIGIT+ PD-1+ CD8+ T cells correlated with parameters of HIV and SIV disease progression. [PLoS Pathog]
Full Article | Press Release

Dendritic Cell Immunotherapy for HIV-1 Infection Using Autologous HIV-1 RNA: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
This Phase IIB, multicenter, 2:1 randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled 54 HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy to receive intradermal injections of study product into the axillary lymph node region every four weeks. There was no difference in the end-of-analytical treatment interruption viral loads between the two arms of the study. [J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr] Abstract

HIV-1 Latency and Virus Production from Unintegrated Genomes following Direct Infection of Resting CD4 T Cells
Scientists characterized in primary resting CD4 T cells the dynamics of integrated and unintegrated virus expression, genome persistence and sensitivity to latency reversing agents. Unintegrated HIV-1 was abundant in directly infected resting CD4 T cells. [Retrovirology] Full Article

HIV Envelope Trimer Specific Immune Response Is Influenced by Different Adjuvant Formulations and Heterologous Prime-Boost
The authors established a hierarchy of adjuvant potency on humoral and cellular mediated immunity when admixed with the recombinant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) glycoprotein 140 (gp140) trimer. They showed that vaccination with gp140 in the presence of different adjuvants can induce high-affinity antibodies, follicular helper T cells and germinal center B cells. [PLoS One] Full Article

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Immunology in the Liver — From Homeostasis to Disease
Tremendous progress has helped to understand the fine-tuning of immune responses in the liver from homeostasis to disease, indicating promising targets for future therapies in acute and chronic liver diseases. [Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the Immunology of Infectious Disease research field.
UC San Diego Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Janssen R&D Collaborate to Treat Chagas Disease
Researchers at the Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of California, San Diego have entered into a research collaboration with Janssen Research & Development, LLC to identify new therapeutic targets for Chagas disease. [University of California, San Diego] Press Release

UM SOM to Collaborate with Industry to Develop a Vaccine to Prevent Common, Deadly Infection
The Center for Vaccine Development at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UM SOM) will participate in a partnership with industry to develop a vaccine to prevent a group of deadly bacterial infections that occur commonly among hospital patients. [University of Maryland School of Medicine] Press Release

New NIH Awards Will Support Development of Therapeutic Alternatives to Traditional Antibiotics
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases has awarded approximately $5 million in funding for 24 research projects seeking to develop non-traditional therapeutics for bacterial infections to help address the growing health threat of antibiotic resistance. [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases] Press Release

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Legal Barriers to Adolescent Participation in HIV and STI Research Need to Be Removed
Parental permission for adolescent participation in research on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is not required ethically and may undermine public health interests, according to a new paper by law and public health experts at Rice University’s Baker Institute for Public Policy and Baylor College of Medicine. [Rice University] Press Release | Report

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Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 1st Biennial Congress of the World Association for Infectious Diseases and Immunological Disorders (WAidid)
February 18-20, 2016
Milan, Italy

NEW Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors 2016
March 15-17, 2016
Boston, United States

NEW Cell Culture World Congress USA 2016
May 19-20, 2016
San Diego, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the Immunology of Infectious Disease community.
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Indiana University School of Medicine)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Host-Microbial Interactions (University of Oxford)

NEW Research Associate – African trypanosomes Immune Evasion (Imperial College London)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Hantavirus and Inflammation Research (Karolinska Institutet)

Postdoctoral Position – Immune Interaction with Aspergillus fumigatus (University Clinics Würzburg)

Postdoctoral Position – Innate Immunity (Umeå University)

Group Leader – Infection and Immunity (Monash University)

Research Technician I – HIV Vaccine Trials (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Faculty Position – Microbiology and Physiological Systems (University of Massachusetts Medical School)

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