Volume 4.00 | Jan 6

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 4.00 January 6, 2016
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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The Mechanism of an AIDS Vaccine Candidate Filmed In Vivo
Using innovative technology, scientists have filmed in vivo the process by which an AIDS vaccine candidate triggers the immune response. [Press release from Institut Pasteur discussing online publication in Nature Medicine] Press Release | Video | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Adjuvanted Influenza-H1N1 Vaccination Reveals Lymphoid Signatures of Age-Dependent Early Responses and of Clinical Adverse Events
Investigators showed that within 24 hours of receiving adjuvanted swine flu vaccine, healthy individuals made expansive, complex molecular and cellular responses that included overt lymphoid as well as myeloid contributions. [Nat Immunol] Abstract | Press Release

Microbiota Regulate the Ability of Lung Dendritic Cells to Induce IgA Class-Switch Recombination and Generate Protective Gastrointestinal Immune Responses
Researchers showed that lung CD103+ and CD24+CD11b+ dendritic cells induced IgA class-switch recombination by activating B cells through T cell–dependent or –independent pathways. [J Exp Med]
Abstract | Press Release

Severe Malaria Infections Impair Germinal Center Responses by Inhibiting T Follicular Helper Cell Differentiation
Using mouse models, scientists showed that severe malaria infection inhibits the establishment of germinal centers in the spleen. They demonstrated that infection induces high frequencies of T follicular helper cell precursors but results in impaired Tfh cell differentiation. [Cell Rep]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Treponema pallidum (Syphilis) Antigen TpF1 Induces Angiogenesis through the Activation of the IL-8 Pathway
The authors report that one of the major antigens of T. pallidum, the TpF1 protein, has growth factor-like activity on primary cultures of human endothelial cells and activates specific T cells able to promote tissue factor production. [Sci Rep] Full Article


Virologic Effects of Broadly Neutralizing Antibody VRC01 Administration during Chronic HIV-1 Infection
Scientists assessed the impact of VRC01, a potent human monoclonal antibody targeting the HIV-1 CD4 binding site, on antiretroviral therapy-treated and untreated HIV-1–infected subjects. [Sci Transl Med]
Abstract | Press Release

Structural Constraints of Vaccine-Induced Tier-2 Autologous HIV Neutralizing Antibodies Targeting the Receptor-Binding Site
Researchers showed that immunization with transmitted/founder (TF) mutant Envs gp140 oligomers induced high-titer, V5-dependent plasma neutralization for a Tier-2 autologous TF evolved mutant virus. Structural analysis of autologous neutralizing antibody (nAb) DH427 revealed binding to V5, demonstrating the source of narrow nAb specificity and explaining the failure to acquire breadth. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

A Dendritic Cell Targeted Vaccine Induces Long-Term HIV-Specific Immunity within the Gastrointestinal Tract
Studies focusing on early transmission events, including the observation that there is a profound loss of gastrointestinal CD4+ T cells during acute HIV-1 infection, highlight the importance of inducing HIV-specific immunity within the gut. Investigators report on the generation of cellular and humoral immune responses in the intestines by a mucosally administered, dendritic cell targeted vaccine. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Particular Activation Phenotype of T Cells Expressing HLA-DR but Not CD38 in GALT from HIV-Controllers Is Associated with Immune Regulation and Delayed Progression to AIDS
Researchers evaluated the following parameters in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) samples from 11 HIV-controllers and 15 HIV-progressors: frequency and activation phenotype of T cells; expression of transcription factors associated with immune response profiles; and frequency of apoptotic cells. [Immunol Res] Abstract

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Sepsis-Induced Immune Dysfunction: Can Immune Therapies Reduce Mortality?
Sepsis is well known to alter innate and adaptive immune responses for sustained periods after clinical “recovery,” with immunosuppression being a prominent example of such alterations. Recent studies have centered on immune-modulatory therapy. [J Clin Invest] Full Article

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Tulane University Awarded $4.2 Million to Study Ways to Wipe Out HIV from Hidden Reservoirs
The National Institutes of Health has awarded Tulane National Primate Research Center $4.2 million to study new ways to flush out and kill HIV from reservoirs where the virus lurks beyond the reach of antiviral therapies. [Tulane University] Press Release

Cempra Enters into a CRADA with the NIAID and Expands the Phase III Solithromycin Clinical Trial in Urogenital Gonorrhea to Include Additional Female Patients and Adolescents
Cempra, Inc. announced it has successfully completed enrollment of 250 patients in the United States and Australia for its Phase III trial in urogenital gonorrhea. The Phase III trial has been amended to include up to an additional 60 patients, consisting of women and adolescents with culture-proven gonorrhea. [Cempra, Inc.] Press Release

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World’s First Clinical Guidelines for Chronic Fungal Lung Infections
The world’s first guidelines for chronic fungal lung infections for doctors and laboratories have been published by the European Respiratory Society and the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. These new guidelines describe the important features of this disease and provide comprehensive treatment recommendations. [European Lung Foundation] Editorial | Report

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Gordon Research Conference – Autophagy in Stress, Development & Disease
March 20-25, 2016
Ventura, United States

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NEW Postdoctoral Position – Hantavirus and Inflammation Research (Karolinska Institutet)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immune Interaction with Aspergillus fumigatus (University Clinics Würzburg)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Innate Immunity (Umeå University)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Group Leader – Infection and Immunity (Monash University)

PhD Studentship – School of Pathology (University of Oxford)

Professor – Molecular Biology (Umeå University)

Research Technician I – HIV Vaccine Trials (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Faculty Position – Microbiology and Physiological Systems (University of Massachusetts Medical School)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology/Vaccinology/Bioinformatics (Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School)

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