Volume 3.47 | Dec 16

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.47 December 16, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Unique Role for ATG5 in Neutrophil-Mediated Immunopathology during M. tuberculosis Infection
Investigators showed that, contrary to expectation, autophagic capacity does not correlate with the outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Instead, ATG5 plays a unique role in protection against M. tuberculosis by preventing polymorponuclear cell-mediated immunopathology. [Nature] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Systems Analysis of Immunity to Influenza Vaccination across Multiple Years and in Diverse Populations Reveals Shared Molecular Signatures
Researchers applied systems approaches to study immune responses in young, elderly, and diabetic subjects vaccinated with the seasonal influenza vaccine across five consecutive seasons. Baseline signatures of lymphocyte and monocyte inflammation were positively and negatively correlated, respectively, with antibody responses at one month. [Immunity] Full Article | Press Release

Interdependence between Interleukin-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Regulates TNF-Dependent Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection
Researchers showed that without interleukin-1 receptor I, M. tuberculosis-infected newly recruited Ly6Ghi myeloid cells failed to upregulate tumor necrosis factor receptor I and to produce reactive oxygen species, resulting in compromised pathogen control. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies Block Chikungunya Virus Entry and Release by Targeting an Epitope Critical to Viral Pathogenesis
Investigators evaluated the mechanism by which neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies inhibit chikungunya virus infection. Potently neutralizing antibodies blocked infection at multiple steps of the virus life cycle, including entry and release. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Antigen-Dependent and –Independent Contributions to Primary Memory CD8 T Cell Activation and Protection following Infection
Scientists examined activation of virus-specific memory CD8 T-cells following infection with L. monocytogenes either expressing or not cognate antigen (Ag). They showed that Ag and inflammation act synergistically in vitro to induce memory activation. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Cooperation between CD4+ T Cells and Humoral Immunity Is Critical for Protection against Dengue Using a DNA Vaccine Based on the NS1 Antigen
Scientists elucidated the contribution of cellular and humoral responses elicited by a DNA vaccine candidate for protective immunity, pcTPANS1. They observed that pcTPANS1 exerted a robust protection against dengue, inducing considerable levels of anti-NS1 antibodies and T cell responses. [PLoS Negl Trop Dis] Full Article


HIV-1 Increases TLR Responses in Human Primary Astrocytes
Researchers confirmed that viral gene expression from the moment of pretreatment with antiretrovirals inhibited HIV-1-induced TLR response. The higher response to LPS from HIV-1-infected cells did not correlate with TLR4 or MyD88 increased expression. [Sci Rep] Full Article

HIV-1 Antibody Neutralization Breadth Is Associated with Enhanced HIV-Specific CD4+ T Cell Responses
Scientists conducted a comprehensive analysis of HIV-specific CD4+ T cell responses in a cohort of 34 untreated HIV-infected viremic controllers matched for viral load, with and without neutralizing antibody breadth to a panel of viral strains. Results showed that the breadth and magnitude of Gag-specific CD4+ T cell responses were significantly higher in individuals with neutralizing antibodies versus those without neutralizing antibodies. [J Virol] Abstract

Dendritic Cells Enhance HIV Infection of Memory CD4+ T Cells in Human Lymphoid Tissues
To study the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in HIV infection of lymphoid tissues researchers utilized human tonsil tissues, cultured either as tissue blocks or as aggregate suspension cultures, in single-round infection experiments. In these experiments, addition of monocyte-derived DCs to the cultures increased T cell infection, particularly in CD4+ T cells expressing lower levels of HLA-DR. [AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses] Abstract

The α7-Nicotinic Receptor Is Upregulated in Immune Cells from HIV-Seropositive Women: Consequences to the Cholinergic Anti-Inflammatory Response
Scientists demonstrated that HIV gp120IIIB induces α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7) upregulation and a paradoxical proinflammatory phenotype in macrophages, as activation of the upregulated α7 is no longer capable of inhibiting the release of proinflammatory cytokines. [Clin Transl Immunol] Full Article

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B Cells in HIV Pathogenesis
The induction of a virus-clearing humoral immune response in natural HIV infection is impaired. Insights into early events in HIV infection that affect B-cell responses and antibody development are addressed and related to strategies for the design of an HIV vaccine. [Curr Opin Infect Dis] Abstract

Rethinking the Immune Properties of Bilirubin in Viral Hepatitis: From Bench to Bedside
The cross-talk between heme catabolism and immune function is described in detail. Special emphasis is given to discoveries that hold promise for identifying immunologic features of metabolic products in the resolution of viral diseases. [Clin Transl Immunol] Full Article

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Sangamo BioSciences Presents Phase II Clinical Data from Two SB-728-T HIV Studies
The preliminary comparative data suggest that adenoviral delivery of zinc finger nucleases to T-cells may be uniquely immune-stimulatory for both acute control of infection, and importantly, HIV reservoir reduction. [Press release from Sangamo BioSciences, Inc. discussing research presented at the 7th International Workshop on HIV Persistence during Therapy, Miami] Press Release

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NIH Gives SLU $2.2 Million to Design a Cure for Hepatitis B
With proof-of-principle in his pocket and a new $2.2 million grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), SLU scientist John Tavis, Ph.D., will take his 25 year mission to finally develop a cure for the hepatitis B virus into the next phase. [Saint Louis University (Newswise, Inc.)] Press Release

Yisheng Biopharma and the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases Announce Collaboration on New Vaccine against Ebola Virus
Yisheng Biopharma Co., Ltd. announced that Yisheng US Biopharma Inc., its wholly owned research subsidiary, has entered into a collaboration with the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases to develop a new vaccine against the Ebola virus using a novel double-stranded RNA-based Toll-like receptor 3 agonist adjuvant technology. [Yisheng Biopharma Co., Ltd. (PR Newswire Association LLC)] Press Release
NIH Drops Special 10% Set-Aside for AIDS Research
In a major shakeup for the HIV/AIDS research community, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced it will no longer support setting aside a fixed 10% of its budget—or $3 billion this year—to fund research on the disease. [ScienceInsider] Editorial

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European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Gordon Research Conference – Autophagy in Stress, Development & Disease
March 20-25, 2016
Ventura, United States

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NEW Group Leader – Infection and Immunity (Monash University)

NEW PhD Studentship – School of Pathology (University of Oxford)

NEW Professor – Molecular Biology (Umeå University)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – T Cell Response to Infection/Vaccination (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Research Technician I – HIV Vaccine Trials (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Faculty Position – Microbiology and Physiological Systems (University of Massachusetts Medical School)

Faculty Position – Infectious Diseases (Washington University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology/Vaccinology/Bioinformatics (Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Meningeal Immunity in Healthy and Injured CNS (University of Virginia)

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