Volume 3.46 | Dec 9

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.46 December 9, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Engineers Develop Potential Treatment for Whooping Cough
Scientists have developed two antibodies to potentially treat or prevent pertussis. Preclinical testing conducted on animals demonstrated that their antibodies work as a prophylaxis to provide short-term immunity and as a treatment to accelerate recovery. [Press release from The University of Texas at Austin discussing publication in Science Translational Medicine] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Immune History Profoundly Affects Broadly Protective B Cell Responses to Influenza
Researchers undertook an in-depth study of the B cell response to the pandemic 2009 H1N1 vaccine over consecutive years. Analysis of monoclonal antibodies generated from vaccine-induced plasmablasts demonstrated that individuals with low preexisting serological titers to the vaccinating strain generated a broadly reactive, hemagglutinin stalk–biased response. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract

Bromodomain Proteins Contribute to Maintenance of Bloodstream Form Stage Identity in the African Trypanosome
The authors reveal a role for trypanosome bromodomain proteins in maintaining bloodstream stage identity and immune evasion. Importantly, bromodomain inhibition leads to a decrease in virulence in a mouse model of infection, establishing these proteins as potential therapeutic drug targets for trypanosomiasis. [PLoS Biol] Full Article | Press Release

Infectious Progeny of 2009 A (H1N1) Influenza Virus Replicated in and Released from Human Neutrophils
Researchers investigated the possibility of H1N1 influenza viral synthesis in infected neutrophils and possible release of infectious progeny from host cells. They found that human neutrophils in vitro without detectable level of sialic acid expression could be infected by this virus strain. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Transcription Factor Batf3 Is Important for Development of CD8+ T-Cell Response against a Phagosomal Bacterium Regardless of the Location of Antigen
Scientists generated MHC I-deficient mice on the resistant (129SvJ) and susceptible (Nramp1 transgenic B6) background to evaluate the role of CD8+ T cells against virulent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST). Their results indicate that CD8+ T cells have a critical protective role in host survival during infection with virulent ST. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract


PD-L1 Blockade Differentially Impacts Regulatory T Cells from HIV-Infected Individuals Depending on Plasma Viremia
Scientists aimed to define the consequences of ex vivo PD-L1 blockade on regulatory T cells (Treg cells) from HIV-infected individuals. They observed that HIV infection led to an increase in PD-1+ and PD-L1+ Treg cells. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Editorial

Early Loss of Splenic Tfh Cells in SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques
Researchers showed a significant decrease in splenic follicular T helper cells (Tfh) cells in SIVmac251-infected rhesus macaques during the acute phase of infection, which persists thereafter. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Differential Associations of IL-6 and Intestinal Fatty Acid-Binding Protein with Progressive Untreated HIV-1 Infection in Rakai, Uganda
Investigators assessed biomarkers of inflammation, microbial translocation, and cellular activation and found most factors elevated in Ugandan HIV-1 seroconverters compared to community-matched controls. [J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr] Abstract

A Highly-Conserved Residue of the HIV-1-gp120 Inner Domain Is Important for ADCC Responses Mediated by Anti-Cluster A Antibodies
The authors showed that a highly conserved tryptophan at position 69 of the gp120 inner domain is important for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) mediated by anti-cluster-A antibodies and sera from HIV-1-infected individuals. [J Virol] Abstract

Immunosenescence of the CD8+ T Cell Compartment Is Associated with HIV-Infection, but Only Weakly Reflects Age-Related Processes of Adipose Tissue, Metabolism, and Muscle in Antiretroviral Therapy-Treated HIV-Infected Patients and Controls
Scientists aimed to investigate whether antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV-infected patients exhibit immunosenescence; and whether immunosenescence is associated with age-related processes of inflammation, metabolism, adipose tissue, and muscle. [BMC Immunol] Full Article

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HIV Immunotherapy Comes of Age: Implications for Prevention, Treatment and Cure
Like for cancer, a paradigm shift has occurred with the contribution of immune activation and microbial translocation priming aberrant systemic immunity in restricting the ability of the host to mount an effective immune response. The approaches of implementing an effective vaccine to prevent infection and inhibition of immune activation with breakage of viral latency followed by vaccination should lead to an HIV-free generation. [Expert Rev Clin Immunol] Full Article

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Texas Biomed Receives $5 Million Grant to Study Possible Functional Cure for Babies Born with HIV
The National Institutes of Health have awarded scientists at Texas Biomedical Research Institute and collaborators at the Food and Drug Administration, UCLA and the University of Pennsylvania a $5 million grant over the next four years to study a combination antiviral drugs and investigative AIDS vaccines aimed at treating infants and children affected by HIV. [Texas Biomedical Research Institute] Press Release

Atox Bio Enrolls First Patient in Phase III Study of Potential Treatment for Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection (Flesh Eating Bacteria)
Atox Bio announced that it has enrolled the first patient in its Phase III study to evaluate AB103 — the first-ever candidate developed for the treatment of necrotizing soft tissue Infections. [Atox Bio] Press Release

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National Institutes of Health (United States)

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Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

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Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 26th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID 2016)
April 9-12, 2016
Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – T Cell Response to Infection/Vaccination (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Mycobacterium tuberculosis (KwaZulu-Natal Research Institute for TB and HIV)

Research Technician I – HIV Vaccine Trials (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Immune Aging and Chronic Infections (Helmholtz Association)

Faculty Position – Microbiology and Physiological Systems (University of Massachusetts Medical School)

Faculty Position – Infectious Diseases (Washington University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology/Vaccinology/Bioinformatics (Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Meningeal Immunity in Healthy and Injured CNS (University of Virginia)

Lab Aide I – Immune Responses to Herpes Simplex Virus (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

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