Volume 3.45 | Dec 2

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.45 December 2, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Why We Do Not Constantly Get Ill despite Viruses and Bacteria
Investigators showed that the body’s very first defense mechanism is not interferon, but rather a hitherto unknown mechanism, which begins working even earlier. The newly discovered immune reaction is activated when the body’s mucous membranes are disrupted, as they are when viruses and bacteria attempt to establish an infection. [Press release from Aarhus University discussing online prepublication in Nature Immunology] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Infection-Induced Type I Interferons Activate CD11b on B-1 Cells for Subsequent Lymph Node Accumulation
Researchers demonstrated that influenza infection-induced type I interferons directly stimulate body cavity B-1 cells and are a necessary signal required for B-1 cell accumulation in mediastinal lymph nodes. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Intravacuolar Membranes Regulate CD8 T Cell Recognition of Membrane-Bound Toxoplasma gondii Protective Antigen
Scientists showed that membrane association regulates access of the GRA6 protective antigen to the MHC I pathway in infected cells. Although insertion of GRA6 in the parasitophorous vacuole membrane is key for immunogenicity, association of GRA6 with the intravacuolar network limits presentation and curtails GRA6-specific CD8 responses in mice. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Impact of Mycobacterium tuberculosis RD1-Locus on Human Primary Dendritic Cell Immune Functions
The impact of wild type or mutated region of difference 1 (RD1) variants on the immunogenicity of M. tuberculosis and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin recombinants was investigated in human primary dendritic cells. [Sci Rep] Full Article

CD11chi Dendritic Cells Regulate Ly-6Chi Monocyte Differentiation to Preserve Immune-Privileged CNS in Lethal Neuroinflammation
Researchers found that CD11chi dendritic cells are essential to control neuroinflammation caused by infection with neurotropic Japanese encephalitis virus, through early and increased infiltration of CD11b+Ly-6Chi monocytes and higher expression of CC chemokines. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Loss of CARD9-Mediated Innate Activation Attenuates Severe Influenza Pneumonia without Compromising Host Viral Immunity
Investigators focused on CARD9, a signaling adaptor known to regulate innate immune activation through multiple innate sensor proteins, and investigated its role in anti-influenza virus defense and lung pathogenesis in a mouse model recapitulating severe influenza pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome. [Sci Rep] Full Article

HIV

Follicular Dendritic Cells Retain Infectious HIV in Cycling Endosomes
Investigators found that human follicular dendritic cells isolated from patients on antiretroviral therapy retain infectious HIV within a non-degradative cycling compartment and transmit infectious virus to uninfected CD4 T cells in vitro. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

CRISPR-Mediated Activation of Latent HIV-1 Expression
Investigators showed that engineered transcriptional activation systems based on CRISPR/Cas9 can be harnessed to activate viral gene expression in cell line models of HIV-1 latency. [Mol Ther] Abstract

Persistent SIV Infection Drives Differentiation, Aberrant Accumulation, and Latent Infection of Germinal Center Follicular T Helper Cells
Researchers found that germinal center (GC) follicular T helper (Tfh) cells do not express the HIV co-receptor CCR5, yet serve as a latent reservoir in germinal centers. With disease progression, an expansion of GC Tfh cells is accompanied by increases in dysfunctional CD8+ T cells. [J Virol] Abstract

Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1-Infected Individuals with CD4 Count below 100 Cells/mm3 Results in Differential Recovery of Monocyte Activation
Scientists aimed to determine whether reduction in biomarkers of monocyte and macrophage activation would be reduced in conjunction with viral suppression and resolution of T cell activation. [J Leukoc Biol] Abstract

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REVIEWS
New Insights into the Immunopathology and Control of Dengue Virus Infection
The authors outline recent advances in the understanding of immunopathology, vaccine development and human monoclonal antibodies produced against dengue virus. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

Immune Activation during Acute HIV Infection and the Impact of Early Antiretroviral Therapy
The authors outline recent data pertaining to mechanisms of immune activation in acute infection and describe new developments that seek to determine if early antiretroviral treatment can mitigate chronic immune activation. [Curr Opin HIV AIDS] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the Immunology of Infectious Disease research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
$20 Million Grant from amfAR Funds Institute for HIV Cure Research
The Foundation for AIDS Research (amfAR) is funding an ambitious effort to eliminate the HIV from those who are infected. With $20 million over five years, the amfAR Institute for HIV Cure Research will support the work of scientists who are at the forefront of the effort to cure AIDS, rather than simply treating it as a chronic disease. [University of California, San Francisco] Press Release

Trinity Scientists Homing in on New Hepatitis C Vaccine
Trinity researchers have just commenced a major new study to evaluate a new vaccine for the prevention of Hepatitis C infection in HIV patients, who are at increased risk of contracting the common infection. [Trinity College Dublin] Press Release

Montefiore AIDS Center and Addiction Medicine Expert Is Honored on World AIDS Day
The New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute will honor the Montefiore AIDS Center staff for their work in the field of HIV/AIDS and Alain Litwin M.D. for his contributions to the field of hepatitis C. [Montefiore AIDS Center (PR Newswire Association LLC)] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
NIH Publishes Criteria for Research on Organ Transplantation between People with HIV Infection
​In a Federal Register notice, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services published safeguards and criteria for research to assess the safety and effectiveness of solid organ transplantation from donors with HIV infection to recipients with HIV infection. [National Institutes of Health] Editorial | Notice

NIH Scientists Draw Evidence-Based Blueprint for HIV Treatment and Prevention
Scientists from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases argue that the results of three large clinical trials definitively prove that the benefits of starting antiretroviral therapy early in infection outweigh any theoretical risk. [National Institutes of Health] Editorial | Article

Progress, but Still Much to Do, AIDS Report Finds
Of the estimated 36.9 million HIV-infected people in the world, 70% live in sub-Saharan Africa. Of these, 49% do not know their HIV status and about 57% are not receiving antiretroviral drugs. [ScienceInsider] Editorial

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 7th International Conference on Drug Discovery and Therapy
February 15-18, 2016
Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the Immunology of Infectious Disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellowship – Mycobacterium tuberculosis (KwaZulu-Natal Research Institute for TB and HIV)

NEW Research Technician I – HIV Vaccine Trials (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Immune Aging and Chronic Infections (Helmholtz Association)

Faculty Position – Microbiology and Physiological Systems (University of Massachusetts Medical School)

Faculty Position – Infectious Diseases (Washington University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology/Vaccinology/Bioinformatics (Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Meningeal Immunity in Healthy and Injured CNS (University of Virginia)

Postdoctoral Position – Immune Responses in Influenza Virus Infection (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)

Lab Aide I – Immune Responses to Herpes Simplex Virus (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)


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