Volume 3.44 | Nov 25

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.44 November 25, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Team Science for Turner Syndrome
Investigators found that a mutation in the UTX gene triggers a deficiency in a particular kind of immune cell that is needed to fight infections. Turner patients have such an immune cell deficiency. The discovery shows the biological mechanisms behind chronic recurrent infections and points to a potential target to alleviate them. [Press release from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine discussing publication in Immunity] Press Release | Full Article | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Superoxide Dismutase 1 Protects Hepatocytes from Type I Interferon-Driven Oxidative Damage
Using a mouse model of viral hepatitis, researchers identified virus-induced early transcriptional changes in the redox pathways in the liver, including downregulation of superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1). Sod1−/− mice exhibited increased inflammation and aggravated liver damage upon viral infection, which was independent of T and NK cells and could be ameliorated by antioxidant treatment. [Immunity] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Helminth-Induced Arginase-1 Exacerbates Lung Inflammation and Disease Severity in Tuberculosis
Using a pulmonary mouse model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, scientists demonstrated that Schistosoma mansoni coinfection or immunization with S. mansoni egg antigens can reversibly impair Mtb-specific T cell responses without affecting macrophage-mediated Mtb control. [J Clin Invest]
Full Article | Press Release

Interferon-γ Inhibits Ebola Virus Infection
Using mouse-adapted Ebola virus, investigators found that murine interferon gamma administered 24 hours before or after infection robustly protects lethally-challenged mice and reduces morbidity and serum viral titers. They demonstrated that interferon gamma profoundly inhibits Ebola virus infection of macrophages, an early cellular target of infection. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Press Release

Mycobacterial Infection Induces a Specific Human Innate Immune Response
To identify immune responses that are specific to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), scientists infected macrophages with eight different bacteria, including different MTB strains and related mycobacteria, and studied their transcriptional response. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Tuftsin-Derived T-Peptide Prevents Cellular Immunosuppression and Improves Survival Rate in Septic Mice
Investigators examined the effect of T-peptide on cell-mediated immunity in the presence of lipopolysaccharide and the survival rate in septic mice. T-peptide regulated the proliferative ability of CD4+CD25 T cells in dual responses. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Smad4 Represses the Generation of Memory-Precursor Effector T Cells but Is Required for the Differentiation of Central Memory T Cells
To explore the role of Smad4 (homolog 4 of mothers against decapentaplegic, Drosophila) in the activation/memory of CD8+ T cells, six- to eight-week-old mice with or without Smad4 in T cells were challenged with Listeria monocytogenes. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article


Slit2N Inhibits Transmission of HIV-1 from Dendritic Cells to T-cells by Modulating Novel Cytoskeletal Elements
Investigators found that Slit2N, a ligand for the Roundabout (Robo) receptors, blocked human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-induced signaling through Arp2/3 and Diaphanous 2, decreased filopodial extensions on dendritic cells, and inhibited cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1 in a Robo1-dependent manner. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Migration of CD8+ T Cells into the Central Nervous System Gives Rise to Highly Potent Anti-HIV CD4dimCD8bright T Cells in a Wnt Signaling-Dependent Manner
Scientists evaluated the role of CD4dimCD8bright and CD8 single positive T cells in HIV-infected brain using NOD/SCID/IL-2rcγ−/− mice reconstituted with human PBMCs. [J Immunol] Abstract

HIV-1 Monoclonal Antibodies Suppress Acute SHIV Viremia and Limit Seeding of Cell-Associated Viral Reservoirs
Investigators tested the ability of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein specific broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to suppress acute simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) replication in rhesus macaques. [J Virol] Abstract

A Simple Mouse Model for Study of Human Immunodeficiency Virus
The authors report a convenient method for constructing a simple HIV-1 mouse model. HIV-1-infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cell-inoculated NOD/SCID/IL2Rγ-null (hu-PBMC-NSG) mice showed significantly lower human CD4+ T cell counts and high HIV viral loads in the peripheral blood compared with non-infected hu-PBMC-NSG mice. [AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses] Abstract

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STING: Infection, Inflammation and Cancer
The discovery of the STING (stimulator of interferon genes)-controlled innate immune pathway, which mediates cytosolic DNA-induced signaling events, has recently provided important insights into these processes, opening the way for the development of novel immunization regimes, as well as therapies to treat autoinflammatory disease and cancer. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

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$2.5 Million Grant Funds Study of How Infectious Diseases Become Epidemics
Two Kansas State University researchers are exploring how diseases spread across long distances in an effort to learn how to better control the next human, animal or plant epidemic. [Kansas State University] Press Release

A Heavy Metal Balancing Act: Studying Copper to Help Cells Fight Back against Bacterial Invaders
With a $1.3 million award from the National Institutes of Health, researchers at Worcester Polytechnic Institute will conduct a systematic study of copper in the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa with the hope of discovering new drug targets that might allow cells in the body to use copper to fight back against this bacterial invader. [Worcester Polytechnic Institute] Press Release | Video

New Open Access Journal npj Vaccines Announced by Nature Publishing Group and the University of Texas Medical Branch
From preventable diseases such as measles and mumps, to Ebola and HIV, new clinical trials and vaccine debate, a new journal, npj Vaccines, will be dedicated to highlighting the most important scientific advances in vaccine research and development. [Nature Publishing Group] Press Release

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NEW 2nd International Conference on Infectious Diseases and Nanomedicine-2015 (ICIDN-2015)
December 15-18, 2015
Kathmandu, Nepal

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NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immune Aging and Chronic Infections (Helmholtz Association)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Faculty Position – Microbiology and Physiological Systems (University of Massachusetts Medical School)

Faculty Position – Infectious Diseases (Washington University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology/Vaccinology/Bioinformatics (Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Optical Trapping of HIV (University of Michigan Ann Arbor)

Postdoctoral Fellow – HIV/SIV Immunology (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Meningeal Immunity in Healthy and Injured CNS (University of Virginia)

Postdoctoral Position – Immune Responses in Influenza Virus Infection (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)

Lab Aide I – Immune Responses to Herpes Simplex Virus (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

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