Volume 3.42 | Nov 4

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.42 November 4, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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A Vaccine Candidate that Supports Immunity Where it Matters Most
Researchers have found that one virus activates the immune system to continually feed sentinel cells into the mucous membranes where they could offer better and more immediate protection at the front lines, preventing disease before it occurs. [Press release from Thomas Jefferson University discussing online prepublication in Cell Reports] Press Release | Full Article | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Mechanisms of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Endocytosis Reveal a Common Immune-Evasion Strategy Used by Pathogenic and Commensal Bacteria
Investigators revealed that, in contrast to classic cytosolic interactions that promoted the endocytosis of transmembrane receptors, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was selected as cargo for inflammatory endocytosis entirely through extracellular interactions. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Virion-Associated Phosphatidylethanolamine Promotes TIM1-Mediated Infection by Ebola, Dengue, and West Nile Viruses
Scientists showed that a subset of phosphatidylserine receptors, including T-cell immunoglobulin mucin domain protein 1 (TIM1), efficiently bind phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). They demonstrated that PE is exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells, and promotes their phagocytic uptake by TIM1-expressing cells. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article

The Salivary Gland Acts as a Sink for Tissue-Resident Memory CD8+ T Cells, Facilitating Protection from Local Cytomegalovirus Infection
Researchers showed that the salivary gland most-effectively induces CD8+ and CD4+ tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM) cells against murine cytomegalovirus, which persists in and spreads from this organ. TRM generation depended on local antigen for CD4+, but not CD8+, TRM cells, highlighting major differences in T cell subset-specific demands for TRM development. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

A Critical Role of IL-21-Induced BATF in Sustaining CD8-T-Cell-Mediated Chronic Viral Control
Scientists demonstrated that IL-21 causes a phenotypic switch of transcription factor expression in CD8 T cells during chronic viral infection characterized by sustained BATF expression. Importantly, BATF expression during chronic infection is both required for optimal CD8 T cell persistence and anti-viral effector function and sufficient to rescue “unhelped” CD8 T cells. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Sustains the Survival of Foxp3+ Regulatory Cells during Late Phase of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis Infection
Investigators studied how CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells viability is regulated in the context of mouse oropharyngeal candidiasis infection, and found that these cells show increased protection from apoptosis during late phase of infection and reinfection. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract


Short-Term Treatment with IFNα Diminishes Expression of HIV-1 and Reduces CD4+ T-Cell Activation in HIV/HCV–Coinfected Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy
The short-term impact of IFNα on persistent HIV-1 and its effects on immune activation after antiretroviral therapy were studied. Researchers showed that cell-associated HIV-1 RNA, and CD4+ T-cell activation decreased in the IFN group. [J Infect Dis] Abstract

Reducing IRF-1 to Levels Observed in HESN Subjects Limits HIV Replication, but Not the Extent of Host Immune Activation
Researchers examined the functional consequences of reducing endogenous IRF-1 (interferon regulatory factor‑1) on HIV-1 replication and immune response to HIV in natural HIV target cells. [Mol Ther Nucleic Acids] Full Article

Combination Recombinant Simian or Chimpanzee Adenoviral Vectors for Vaccine Development
Scientists investigated the potential of low seroprevalence non-human primate rAd vectors to stimulate cellular and humoral responses using HIV Env glycoprotein as the representative antigen. [Vaccine] Abstract

Prime/ Boost Immunization with HIV-1 MPER-V3 Fusion Construct Enhances Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses
The levels of humoral and cellular immune responses were compared using MPER-V3 injection in three immunization strategies such as DNA/DNA, peptide/peptide, and DNA/ peptide (prime-boost). They showed that prime immunization with low dose of the nanoparticles followed by MPER-V3 peptide drives T cell responses towards a Th1-type similar to high dose of the naked DNA prime/ peptide boost immunization. [Immunol Lett] Abstract

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Discordant Responses to cART in HIV-1 Patients in the Era of High Potency Antiretroviral Drugs: Clinical Evaluation, Classification, Management Prospects
The authors reassess immunological nonresponder definition, frequency, and the achievements of active clinical and translational research suggesting a shared definition for insufficient, partial and complete CD4+ cell number recovery thus improving homogeneity in patient selection and mechanism identification. [Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther] Abstract

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ADMA Biologics Announces Data to Be Presented
ADMA Biologics, Inc. announced that a poster for its IVIG product entitled “Protection against Palivizumab Resistant RSV with an IVIG Containing High Titer Anti RSV Neutralizing Antibodies,” will be presented. [Press release from ADMA Biologics, Inc. discussing research to be presented at the 2nd International Primary Immunodeficiencies Congress, Budapest] Press Release | Abstract

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HIV Scientists Launch 23 Million Euro Project to Develop Vaccine
Financed by the European Commission, the European AIDS Vaccine Initiative brings together leading HIV researchers from public organizations and biotech companies from across Europe, Australia, Canada and the USA in a focused effort to develop protective and therapeutic HIV vaccines. [Imperial College London] Press Release

ViiV Healthcare Announces Positive Headline Results from a Study of Two Drug Injectable Regimen for HIV Maintenance Therapy
ViiV Healthcare, a global specialist HIV company with GSK, Pfizer Inc. and Shionogi Limited as shareholders, announced that the Phase IIb study LATTE 2 met its primary endpoint at 32 weeks. LATTE 2 investigated long acting cabotegravir with long acting rilpivirine as a two-drug antiretroviral (ART) regimen for suppressive maintenance therapy in ART-naïve, HIV infected adults. [ViiV Healthcare] Press Release

Immunovaccine’s Vaccine Candidate for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Is Well Tolerated in Volunteers in Phase I Clinical Trial
Immunovaccine Inc. announced that safety data from a Phase I clinical study showed that its DepoVax™ prophylactic respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate (DPX-RSV) was well tolerated in the Phase I study’s first 20 volunteers, of whom eight subjects received the DPX-RSV vaccine. [Immunovaccine Inc.] Press Release

Cannabis Science to Begin Its Drug Development Program with IGXBio and Its GenePro®, DNA-Based Immunotherapeutic, FDA IND # Approved
Cannabis Science, Inc. has announced a significant collaborative drug development deal with IGXBio Inc., and its GenePro®, a DNA-based immunotherapeutic that recently received FDA IND approval to enter into human trials. The companies intend to develop a joint protocol to demonstrate potential synergistic effects of their respective drug candidates in HIV, as well as potential new drug candidates. [Cannabis Science, Inc.] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 4th Immunogenicity & Immunotoxicity Conference
January 25-26, 2016
San Diego, United States

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NEW Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Optical Trapping of HIV (University of Michigan Ann Arbor)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – HIV/SIV Immunology (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Meningeal Immunity in Healthy and Injured CNS (University of Virginia)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Exogenous and Endogenous Retroviruses (The Francis Crick Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Immune Responses in Influenza Virus Infection (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)

Lab Aide I – Immune Responses to Herpes Simplex Virus (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Precision Vaccines (Boston Children’s Hospital)

Canadian Research Chair Tier 1 – Systems Immunology (University of Manitoba)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Membrane Structural Biology and Virus-Host Interactions (Harbin Institute of Technology)

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