Volume 3.41 | Oct 28

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.41 October 28, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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New Research May Lead to Vaccine for Parasitic Disease
Researchers have isolated an antigen that boosts immunity against Leishmaniasis. They identified a cross-species antigen called PEPCK that induces a robust response in both mice and humans. [Press release from the University of Manitoba discussing online prepublication in Science Translational Medicine]
Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
A Role for IFITM Proteins in Restriction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection
Researchers expand the role of interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins to host defense against intracellular bacterial infection by demonstrating that they restrict M. tuberculosis intracellular growth. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

PD-L1 Expression on Retrovirus-Infected Cells Mediates Immune Escape from CD8+ T Cell Killing
To better understand the role of the PD-1 signaling pathway in CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity during acute viral infections, investigators analyzed the expression of the ligand on retrovirus-infected cells targeted by cytotoxic CD8+ T Lymphocytes. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Cytomegalovirus-Specific CD4 T Cells Are Cytolytic and Mediate Vaccine Protection
The authors report the first two I-Ad restricted CD4 T cell responses specific for mouse CMV (MCMV) epitopes, and use a MHC-II tetramer to characterize their phenotype and function. They demonstrated that MCMV-specific CD4 T cells can express high levels of granzyme B and kill target cells in an epitope- and organ-specific manner. [J Virol] Abstract

Expression of Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase Enhances the Clearance of Pneumococcal Pneumonia: Evidence of a Subpopulation of Protective Anti-Pneumococcal B1a Cells
Researchers describe a protective early acquired immune response to pneumococcal pneumonia that is mediated by a subset of B1a cells. Mice deficient in B1 cells, or activation induced cytidine deaminase, or iNKT cells, or IL-13 had impaired early clearance of pneumococci in the lung, compared to wild type mice. [Immunology] Abstract

Antibodies Are Not Required to a Protective Immune Response against Dengue Virus Elicited in a Mouse Encephalitis Model
To investigate the contribution of both humoral and cellular immune responses in dengue virus (DENV) immunity, researchers used an experimental model in which a non-lethal DENV2 strain was used to intracranially prime Balb/C mice which develop protective immunity against a lethal DENV2 strain. [Virology] Abstract


Peripheral Vγ9Vδ2 T Cells Are a Novel Reservoir of Latent HIV Infection
Scientists found that upregulation of the CD4 receptor may render primary Vδ2 cells target for HIV infection in vitro and proposed that HIV-induced immune activation may allow infection of γδ T cells in vivo. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Reducing IRF-1 to Levels Observed in HESN Subjects Limits HIV Replication, but Not the Extent of Host Immune Activation
Investigators examined the functional consequences of reducing endogenous IRF‑1 (interferon regulatory factor‑1) on HIV-1 replication and immune response to HIV in natural HIV target cells. [Mol Ther Nucleic Acids] Full Article

Conditional Immune Escape during Chronic SIV Infection
Investigators tested the hypothesis that conditional immune escape extends into chronic SIV infection and that epitopes with preserved wild-type sequence have the potential to elicit epitope-specific CD8 T cells. [J Virol] Abstract

Defining the HLA Class I-Associated Viral Antigen Repertoire from HIV-1-Infected Human Cells
Researchers report for the first time the identification of 75 HIV-1-derived peptides bound to HLA class I complexes that were purified directly from HIV-1-infected human primary CD4+ T cells and the C8166 human T cell line. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

HIV-Infected Spleens Present Altered Follicular Helper T Cell (Tfh) Subsets and Skewed B Cell Maturation
Using a unique collection of splenocytes, scientists compared the frequency, phenotype and transcriptome of Tfh subsets in spleens from HIV and HIV+ subjects. They observed an increase of CXCR5+PD-1highCD57 Tfh and germinal center CD57+ Tfh in HIV+ spleens. [PLoS One] Full Article

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Immune Correlates of Vaccine Protection against HIV-1 Acquisition
Immunological correlates, mainly including CD4+ T cell responses to the HIV envelope and Fc-mediated antibody effector function, have been connected to reduced acquisition. [Sci Transl Med]
Abstract | Press Release

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Spain Starts Ambitious Trial to Cure HIV Using Umbilical Cord Stem Cells
Doctors in Spain have announced the world’s first clinical trial to cure five HIV patients within three years using transplants of blood from umbilical cords. [The Local es] Press Release

Imprimis Pharmaceuticals to Make Compounded and Customizable Formulation of Pyrimethamine and Leucovorin Available for Physicians to Prescribe for their Patients as an Alternative to Daraprim®
Imprimis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced it has made available a customizable compounded formulation of pyrimethamine and leucovorin available for physicians to consider prescribing for their patients as a low cost alternative to Daraprim®. [Imprimis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

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January 19-21, 2016
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NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Meningeal Immunity in Healthy and Injured CNS (University of Virginia)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Exogenous and Endogenous Retroviruses (The Francis Crick Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Immune Responses in Influenza Virus Infection (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)

Research Associate – Immune System Interactions with Pathogens (University of Glasgow)

Lab Aide I – Immune Responses to Herpes Simplex Virus (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Precision Vaccines (Boston Children’s Hospital)

Canadian Research Chair Tier 1 – Systems Immunology (University of Manitoba)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Membrane Structural Biology and Virus-Host Interactions (Harbin Institute of Technology)

Assistant Professor – Immunology (Erasmus University Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Host-Pathogen Interactions (Cedars-Sinai)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology and Virology (Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research)

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