Volume 3.39 | Oct 14

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.39 October 14, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
Like Us on Facebook  IIDN on Twitter
Microbiota-Dependent Sequelae of Acute Infection Compromise Tissue-Specific Immunity
Investigators report that a single acute infection can have dramatic and long-term consequences for tissue-specific immunity. Following clearance of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, sustained inflammation and associated lymphatic leakage in the mesenteric adipose tissue deviates migratory dendritic cells to the adipose compartment, thereby preventing their accumulation in the mesenteric lymph node. [Cell]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract
Isolate rat immune cells in as little as 13 minutes. Request a sample today.
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Mucosal Vaccination with Attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis Induces Strong Central Memory Responses and Protects against Tuberculosis
Scientists showed that aerosol immunization of macaques with the Mtb mutant in SigH results in significant recruitment of inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing activation and proliferation markers to the lungs. [Nat Commun] Full Article | Press Release

Myeloid Cell Arg1 Inhibits Control of Arthritogenic Alphavirus Infection by Suppressing Antiviral T Cells
Researchers showed that arginase 1 (Arg1), along with other genes associated with suppressive myeloid cells, is induced in PBMCs isolated from CHIKV-infected patients during the acute phase as well as the chronic phase, and that high Arg1 expression levels were associated with high viral loads and disease severity. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell-Derived IFNα Modulates Th17 Differentiation during Early Bordetella pertussis Infection in Mice
As plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a major source of type I interferons (IFNs), researchers hypothesized that during B. pertussis infection in mice, pDC-derived IFNα inhibits a rapid increase in T helper 17 (Th17) cells. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Induction of Mincle by Helicobacter pylori and Consequent Anti-Inflammatory Signaling Denote a Bacterial Survival Strategy
Scientists demonstrated the role of Mincle (Macrophage inducible C-type lectin) in modulation of innate immune response against H. pylori infection. siRNA mediated knockdown of Mincle in human macrophages resulted in up regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and consequent down regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Predominant Role of Interferon-γ in the Host Protective Effect of CD8+ T Cells against Neospora caninum Infection
In both C57BL/6 and C57BL/10 ScSn mice, CD8+ T cells were activated and produced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) upon challenge with N. caninum. The host protective role of IFN-γ produced by CD8+ T cells was confirmed in N. caninum-infected RAG2-deficient mice reconstituted with CD8+ T cells obtained from either IFN-γ-deficient or wild-type donors. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Modulates Renal Tubular Epithelial Cell-Induced T-Cell and Macrophage Responses
Researchers measured renal function and inflammatory cell infiltration in C57BL/6J-TgN mice, and data showed that in C57BL/6J-TgN mice hepatitis B virus (HBV) x protein mainly deposited in renal tubular epithelial cells, and CD4+ T cells and macrophages infiltrated into the interstitium. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract


Immunological Biomarkers Predict HIV-1 Viral Rebound after Treatment Interruption
Scientists showed that immunological biomarkers can predict time to viral rebound after stopping antiretroviral therapy (ART) by analyzing data from a randomized study of primary HIV-1 infection incorporating a treatment interruption after 48 weeks of ART. T-cell exhaustion markers PD-1, Tim-3 and Lag-3 measured prior to ART strongly predict time to the return of viremia. [Nat Commun] Full Article | Press Release

Impact of a Decade of Successful Antiretroviral Therapy Initiated at HIV-1 Seroconversion on Blood and Rectal Reservoirs
Researchers compared HIV-1 reservoirs in a cross-sectional study using PCR-based techniques in blood and tissue of early treated seroconverters, late treated patients, antiretroviral therapy-naïve seroconverters and long-term non-progressors who have spontaneous virological control without treatment. [eLife] Full Article

Increased Susceptibility of CD4+ T Cells from Elderly Individuals to HIV-1 Infection and Apoptosis Is Associated with Reduced CD4 and Enhanced CXCR4 and FAS Surface Expression Levels
To identify possible reasons for age differences in clinical progression, investigators performed comprehensive phenotypic analyses of CD4+ T cells from uninfected young and elderly individuals, and examined their susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and programmed death. [Retrovirology] Full Article

Subscribe to our sister publications: Human Immunology News and Immune Regulation News!

Learn more about T cell activation and expansion with ImmunoCult™
Sizing up the Key Determinants of the CD8+ T Cell Response
Recent technological advances have allowed scientists to more accurately identify, characterize and quantitate key determinants that define the specificity and magnitude of CD8+ T cell-mediated immunity. This review discusses the technical and conceptual advances that have markedly changed the understanding of the determinants of primary cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

Blocking HIV-1 Transmission in the Female Reproductive Tract: From Microbicide Development to Exploring Local Antiviral Responses
The authors highlight the important factors involved in the heterosexual transmission of HIV-1, provide an update on microbicides’ clinical trials, and discuss how different delivery platforms and local immunity may empower the development of next generation of microbicide to block HIV-1 transmission in the female reproductive tract. [Clin Transl Immunol] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the Immunology of Infectious Disease research field.
Altimmune Chief Scientific Officer to Present at Two Premier Vaccine Conferences
In the first presentation, Dr. M Scot Roberts will discuss recent pre-clinical trial results concerning NasoShield™ (formerly AdVA™), Altimmune’s anthrax vaccine candidate. The second talk will examine the impact a particular vaccine platform technology can have on the ability to meet current vaccine challenges. [Press release from Altimmune, Inc. discussing research to be presented at the Bacillus ACT 2015 Meeting, New Delhi, and the International Conference on Vaccines Research & Development (Vaccines R&D-2015), Baltimore] Press Release

Antiviral Compound Provides Full Protection from Ebola Virus in Nonhuman Primates
Rhesus monkeys were completely protected from the deadly Ebola virus when treated three days after infection with a compound that blocks the virus’s ability to replicate. [Press release from the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases discussing research presented at IDWeek 2015, San Diego] Press Release | Abstract

Nabriva Presents Data on Lefamulin
Nabriva is developing its lead product candidate, lefamulin, to be the first systemically available pleuromutilin for human use and expects to begin enrolling patients in the first of two Phase III clinical studies of lefamulin for the treatment of community acquired bacterial pneumonia in the fourth quarter of 2015. [Press release from Nabriva Therapeutics AG discussing research presented at IDWeek 2015, San Diego] Press Release

Melinta Therapeutics Presents Complete Delafloxacin Results from Phase III Study in Patients with Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections
Melinta Therapeutics announced complete results from the first of two Phase III studies of delafloxacin, an investigational fluoroquinolone in late-stage development for the treatment of patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. [Press release from Melinta Therapeutics, Inc. discussing research presented at IDWeek 2015, San Diego] Press Release

Data Presented at IDWeek Reports AVYCAZ™ (Ceftazidime and Avibactam) Demonstrated In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity against Common Enterobacteriaceae Pathogens, including Certain Carbapenem-Resistant Strains
Researchers presented data from the International Network for Optimal Resistance Monitoring (INFORM) program. This program is part of a research effort developed and supported by Allergan plc that monitors the prevalence of resistant bacteria and changing trends of resistance, as well as the in vitro activity of antibiotics against these pathogens. [Press release from Allergan plc discussing research presented at IDWeek 2015, San Diego] Press Release

From our sponsor: Free human hematopoietic progenitors wallchart. Request your copy.
AIDS Pioneer Finally Brings AIDS Vaccine to Clinic
Robert Gallo’s team has been developing a vaccine with an unusual method of protection for 15 years and is now launching the first clinical trial of it in collaboration with Profectus BioSciences, a biotech that spun off from the Institute of Human Virology recently. A Phase I study, the trial expects to enroll 60 people and will simply assess safety and immune responses of the “full-length single chain” vaccine. [ScienceInsider] Press Release

Human Vaccines Project Partners with MedImmune to Help Accelerate Research and Development in Infectious Disease and Oncology
MedImmune is the newest member of the Human Vaccines Project, which will help to accelerate the research and development of vaccines and immunotherapies for infectious disease and cancer. [MedImmune, LLC] Press Release
Kenya Needs Sh3 Billion More for War on HIV/AIDS
The government needs an extra Sh3 billion to put all Kenyans diagnosed with HIV/AIDS on crucial anti-retroviral treatment as recommended by latest guidelines from the World Health Organization. [Standard Digital Media] Editorial

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Keystone Symposium: Cytokine JAK-STAT Signaling in Immunity and Disease
January 10-14, 2016
Steamboat Springs, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the Immunology of Infectious Disease community.
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immune Responses in Influenza Virus Infection (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)

Research Associate – Immune System Interactions with Pathogens (University of Glasgow)

Lab Aide I – Immune Responses to Herpes Simplex Virus (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Precision Vaccines (Boston Children’s Hospital)

Canadian Research Chair Tier 1 – Systems Immunology (University of Manitoba)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Membrane Structural Biology and Virus-Host Interactions (Harbin Institute of Technology)

Assistant Professor – Immunology (Erasmus University Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Host-Pathogen Interactions (Cedars-Sinai)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology and Virology (Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research)

Faculty Positions – Virology (NYU School of Medicine)

PhD Positions – Infection Biology and Immunology (ZIBI Graduate School)

Recruit Top Talent: Reach more than 60,000 potential candidates by posting your organization’s career opportunities on the Connexon Creative Job Board at no cost.

Have we missed an important article or publication in Immunology of Infectious Disease News? Click here to submit!

Comments or suggestions? Submit your feedback here
Learn more about Immunology of Infectious Disease News: Archives | Events | Contact Us