Volume 3.38 | Oct 7

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.38 October 7, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Scientists Identify Genes that Shut Down HIV-1
A pair of studies have identified genes that disable HIV-1, suggesting a promising new strategy for battling the virus that causes AIDS. They showed that the host cell membrane proteins SERINC5 and SERINC3 greatly reduce the virulence of HIV-1 by blocking the ability of the virus to infect new cells. [Press release from the University of Massachusetts Medical School discussing online prepublications in Nature]
Press Release | Abstract 1 | Abstract 2
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Hepatitis C Virus Upregulates B-Cell Receptor Signaling: A Novel Mechanism for HCV-Associated B-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disorders
Investigators demonstrated the expression of hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral proteins in B cells of HCV-infected patients and show that HCV upregulates B-cell receptor signaling in human primary B cells. [Oncogene] Full Article

Conserved Motifs within Hepatitis C Virus Envelope (E2) RNA and Protein Independently Inhibit T Cell Activation
Investigators showed that incubation of primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells with hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-containing serum, HCV-RNA containing extracellular vesicles, cell culture derived HCV particles and HCV envelope pseudotyped retrovirus particles inhibited T cell receptor-mediated signaling. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Immunodominant Epitope-Specific Th1 but Not Th17 Responses Mediate Protection against Helicobacter pylori Infection following UreB Vaccination of BALB/C Mice
Scientists demonstrated that the vaccination of BALB/c mice with recombinant urease B (UreB) subunit resulted in significant antigen-specific Th1 and Th17 immune responses. Importantly, two novel Th epitopes, UreB317–329 and UreB409–421, which are recognized by a major population of CD4+ T cells, were identified in immunized mice. [Sci Rep] Full Article


Retroviruses Use CD169-Mediated Trans-Infection of Permissive Lymphocytes to Establish Infection
Investigators visualized how retroviruses disseminate in secondary lymphoid tissues of living mice. They demonstrated that murine leukemia virus (MLV) and human immunodeficiency virus are first captured by sinus-lining macrophages. MLV-laden macrophages then form long-lived synaptic contacts to trans-infect B-1 cells. [Science] Abstract | Press Release | Video 1 | Video 2

Antiretroviral Drugs Do Not Interfere with Bryostatin-Mediated HIV-1 Latency Reversal
Scientists determined the in vitro potential effect of bryostatin-1 (BRY) in combination with currently used antiretroviral drugs. They found that BRY reactivates HIV-1 even in combination with maraviroc or Atripla. [Antiviral Res] Abstract

Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) at Different Stages of HIV-1 Disease Is Not Associated with the Proportion of Exhausted CD8+ T Cells
Researchers evaluated whether restoration of CD8+ T cell function in HIV-1-infected individuals was dependent on early initiation of ART. HIV-specific CD107a, IFNγ, IL-2, TNFα and MIP-1β expression by CD8+ T cells and the frequency of CD8+ T cells expressing PD-1, 2B4 and CD160 were measured by flow cytometry. [PLoS One] Full Article

Higher Activation in CD4+ T Cells but Similar Viral Control among HIV/HCV-Coinfected Patients on a Simplification Monotherapy
Investigators assessed whether HCV-coinfection would affect the clinical and immunological outcome of HIV-infected patients following a simplification strategy. Immune activation was studied as HLA-DR CD38 co-expression on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and also the quantification of plasma sCD14 levels. [AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses] Abstract

Poor Functional Immune Recovery in Aged HIV-1-Infected Patients following Successfully Treatment with Antiretroviral Therapy
Researchers evaluated the impact of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in recovering functional response of T cells to both HIV-1-specific ENV peptides and tetanus toxoid, in young and aged AIDS patients who responded to ARV therapy by controlling virus replication and elevating CD4+ T cell counts. [Hum Immunol] Abstract

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Guiding Dengue Vaccine Development Using Knowledge Gained from the Success of the Yellow Fever Vaccine
The authors review the protective immune responses elicited by the vaccine against yellow fever virus to provide some insights into the development of a protective dengue virus vaccine. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the Immunology of Infectious Disease research field.
NewLink Genetics Awarded $18 Million Contract Option from BARDA
NewLink Genetics Corporation announced that the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services has exercised an $18 million option on NewLink Genetics’ existing contract to support the scale-up of the manufacturing process relating to its investigational rVSV-ZEBOV GP (Ebola) vaccine candidate. [NewLink Genetics Corporation] Press Release

CDC Names Six New Medical Research Centers to Accelerate Health Care Innovations
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) awarded a total of $11 million to the six academic institutions to identify possible new and improved ways to prevent the spread of infectious diseases like Ebola in health care facilities. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention] Press Release

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Treat All People Living with HIV, Offer Antiretrovirals as Additional Prevention Choice for People at “Substantial” Risk
Anyone infected with HIV should begin antiretroviral treatment as soon after diagnosis as possible. With its “treat-all” recommendation, WHO removes all limitations on eligibility for antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV; all populations and age groups are now eligible for treatment. [World Health Organization (WHO)] Editorial

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 19th International Conference on Immunology (ICI) 2017
September 14-17, 2017
Berlin, Germany

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NEW Research Associate – Immune System Interactions with Pathogens (University of Glasgow)

NEW Lab Aide I – Immune Responses to Herpes Simplex Virus (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Precision Vaccines (Boston Children’s Hospital)

Canadian Research Chair Tier 1 – Systems Immunology (University of Manitoba)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Membrane Structural Biology and Virus-Host Interactions (Harbin Institute of Technology)

Assistant Professor – Immunology (Erasmus University Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Host-Pathogen Interactions (Cedars-Sinai)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology and Virology (Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research)

Faculty Positions – Virology (NYU School of Medicine)

PhD Positions – Infection Biology and Immunology (ZIBI Graduate School)

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