Volume 3.37 | Sep 30

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.37 September 30, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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TOP STORY
Flu Infection Reveals Many Paths to Immune Response
A new study of influenza infection in an animal model broadens understanding of how the immune system responds to flu virus, showing that the process is more dynamic than usually described, engaging a broader array of biological pathways. [Press release from Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (Newswise, Inc.) discussing online prepublication in Nature Medicine] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Th17 Cell Induction by Adhesion of Microbes to Intestinal Epithelial Cells
Investigators showed that adhesion of microbes to intestinal epithelial cells (ECs) is a critical cue for Th17 induction. Upon monocolonization of germ-free mice or rats with segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) indigenous to mice (M-SFB) or rats (R-SFB), M-SFB and R-SFB showed host-specific adhesion to small intestinal ECs, accompanied by host-specific induction of Th17 cells. [Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

The Interleukin-2-mTORc1 Kinase Axis Defines the Signaling, Differentiation, and Metabolism of T Helper 1 and Follicular B Helper T Cells
Scientists found that follicular B helper T cells exhibited less proliferation, glycolysis, and mitochondrial respiration, accompanied by reduced mTOR kinase activity compared to T helper 1 cells in response to acute viral infection. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Functional Classification of Memory CD8+ T Cells by CX3CR1 Expression
Researchers demonstrated that the fractalkine-receptor/CX3CR1 distinguishes memory CD8+ T cells with cytotoxic effector function from those with proliferative capacity, independent of tissue-homing properties. Virus-specific CX3CR1+ memory CD8+ T cells are scarce during chronic infection in humans and mice but increase when infection is controlled spontaneously or by therapeutic intervention. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Tissue Distribution of Memory T and B Cells in Rhesus Monkeys following Influenza A Infection
Using a nonhuman primate model, researchers revealed substantial induction of local T and B cell responses following the 2009 pandemic H1N1 infection. They identified a subset of influenza-specific lung memory T cells characterized as tissue-resident memory T cells in rhesus monkeys. [J Immunol] Abstract | Full Article

HIV

Dual-Affinity Re-Targeting Proteins Direct T Cell–Mediated Cytolysis of Latently HIV-Infected Cells
Researchers employed Dual-Affinity Re-Targeting (DART) proteins, which are bispecific, antibody-based molecules that can bind 2 distinct cell-surface molecules simultaneously. They designed DARTs with a monovalent HIV-1 envelope-binding arm that was derived from broadly binding, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity–mediating antibodies known to bind to HIV-infected target cells coupled to a monovalent CD3 binding arm designed to engage cytolytic effector T cells. [J Clin Invest] Full Article | Press Release

Role of T-Cell Reconstitution in HIV-1 Antiretroviral Therapy-Induced Bone Loss
Scientists hypothesized that skeletal deterioration following HIV disease reversal with antiretroviral therapy (ART) may be related to T-cell repopulation and/or immune reconstitution. They transplanted T cells into immunocompromised mice to mimic ART-induced T-cell expansion. T-cell reconstitution elicited RANKL and TNFα production by B cells and/or T cells, accompanied by enhanced bone resorption and bone mineral density loss. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Adipose Tissue Is a Neglected Viral Reservoir and an Inflammatory Site during Chronic HIV and SIV Infection
Investigators first analyzed the impact of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in SIVmac251 infected macaques and found that both adipocytes and adipose tissue immune cells were affected. They detected cell-associated SIV DNA and RNA in the stromal vascular fraction and in sorted CD4+ T cells and macrophages from adipose tissue. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Press Release

Persistent Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Causes Ultimate Depletion of Follicular Th Cells in AIDS
Although CD4+ T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are reported to accumulate in HIV or SIV infection, investigators found that germinal center Tfh cells did not consistently accumulate in chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaques compared with those infected with less pathogenic simian HIV, vaccinated and SIVmac-challenged, or SIVmac-infected Mamu-A*01+ macaques, all of which are associated with some control of virus replication and slower disease progression. [J Immunol] Abstract

Effect of Depot Medoxyprogesterone Acetate on Immune Functions and Inflammatory Markers of HIV-Infected Women
Researchers evaluated the effect of a single depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injection on cell-mediated immunity, T cell activation, regulation and inflammation in HIV-infected women on cART. [J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr] Abstract

Multidimensional Clusters of CD4+ T Cell Dysfunction Are Primarily Associated with the CD4/CD8 Ratio in Chronic HIV Infection
Multi-parametric flow cytometry was used to investigate immune activation, exhaustion, and senescence of diverse maturation phenotypes of CD4+ T cells. Multiple correlation analyses between laboratory parameters and pathological CD4+ clusters revealed that the CD4/CD8 ratio was the preeminent surrogate marker of CD4+ T cells dysfunction using all three methods. [PLoS One] Full Article

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REVIEWS
Epigenetic Control of HIV-1 Post Integration Latency: Implications for Therapy
Epigenetic mechanisms such as histone post translational modifications and DNA methylation of the proviral DNA and microRNAs are involved in the establishment of HIV-1 latency. The authors discuss the current understanding of HIV-1 epigenomics and how this information can be moved from the laboratory bench to the patient’s bedside. [Clin Epigenetics] Full Article

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SCIENCE NEWS
Sangamo BioSciences Reports Updated Clinical Data from ZFP Therapeutic® Program for HIV/AIDS
Sangamo BioSciences, Inc. presented data demonstrating sustained functional control of viral load in the absence of antiretroviral drug in two of three HIV-infected subjects treated in Cohort 3 of its Phase I/II study of its ZFP therapeutic for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. [Press release from Sangamo BioSciences, Inc. discussing research presented at the 2015 Interscience Conference of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), San Diego] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
The Institut Pasteur and the World Organization for Animal Health Sign Their First Collaboration Agreement
Within the framework of the “One Health” concept, aimed in particular at protecting public and animal health through policies to prevent and control pathogens at the human/animal/environment interface, the collaboration agreement just signed by the Institut Pasteur and the World Organization for Animal Health seeks to strengthen cooperation in this field between the two organizations. [Institut Pasteur] Press Release

NewLink Genetics Receives $8.1 Million Award from DTRA to Advance Ebola Vaccine
NewLink Genetics Corporation announced that the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) of the United States Department of Defense has awarded a subsidiary of NewLink Genetics an $8.1 million base contract with future options totaling $5.2 million to support various development activities of the investigational rVSV-ZEBOV (Ebola) vaccine candidate. [NewLink Genetics Corporation] Press Release

$3 Million Funds Research to Develop New HIV Vaccine Strategies
Infectious disease researchers at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry will use $3.1 million from the National Institutes of Health to find new ways to develop a vaccine to prevent HIV. [University of Rochester Medical Center] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 18th International Conference on Immunology (ICI) 2016
December 12-13, 2016
Bangkok, Thailand

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the Immunology of Infectious Disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Precision Vaccines (Boston Children’s Hospital)

NEW Research Technician III – HSV Vaccine Research (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Canadian Research Chair Tier 1 – Systems Immunology (University of Manitoba)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Membrane Structural Biology and Virus-Host Interactions (Harbin Institute of Technology)

Assistant Professor – Immunology (Erasmus University Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Host-Pathogen Interactions (Cedars-Sinai)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Molecular Immunology (GlaxoSmithKline)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology and Virology (Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research)

Faculty Positions – Virology (NYU School of Medicine)

PhD Positions – Infection Biology and Immunology (ZIBI Graduate School)


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