Volume 3.36 | Sep 23

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.36 September 23, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Nociceptive Sensory Fibers Drive Interleukin-23 Production from CD301b+ Dermal Dendritic Cells and Drive Protective Cutaneous Immunity
Researchers found that dermal γδ T cells were the dominant source of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) during Candida albicans infection and were required for pathogen resistance. Induction of IL-17A from dermal γδ T cells and resistance to C. albicans required IL-23 production from CD301b+ dermal dendritic cells. [Immunity]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Standardization of the Antibody-Dependent Respiratory Burst Assay with Human Neutrophils and Plasmodium falciparum Malaria
Scientists optimized the antibody-dependent respiratory burst assay, which assesses the ability of antibodies to activate the release of reactive oxygen species from human neutrophils in response to P. falciparum blood-stage parasites. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Flt3 Ligand Is Essential for Survival and Protective Immune Responses during Toxoplasmosis
The cytokine Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) is critical for the generation and maintenance of dendritic cells, and Flt3L−/− mice were found to be highly susceptible to acute toxoplasmosis. This phenotype correlated with decreased production of IL-12 and IFN-γ, as well as impaired NK cell responses. [J Immunol] Abstract | Full Article

Transient Loss of Protection Afforded by a Live Attenuated Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Vaccine in Mice Co-infected with Malaria
Researchers investigated whether a live, attenuated Salmonella vaccine could be protective in mice, in the setting of concurrent malaria. Surprisingly, mice acutely infected with the nonlethal malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL exhibited a profound loss of protective immunity to non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars, but vaccine-mediated protection was restored after resolution of malaria. [PLoS Negl Trop Dis] Full Article

B Cells and Programmed Death-Ligand 2 Signaling Are Required for Maximal Interferon-γ Recall Response by Splenic CD4+ Memory T Cells of Mice Vaccinated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ag85B
Since emerging evidence indicates that B cells can modulate T cell responses to M. tuberculosis infection, researchers investigated the contribution of B cells in regulating interferon-γ recall response by memory T helper 1 cells specific for Ag85B, a leading candidate for tuberculosis sub-unit vaccines. [PLoS One] Full Article

Ex Vivo Lymphocyte Phenotyping during Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoite Immunization in Humans
Investigators performed the first longitudinal assessment of lymphocyte activation and differentiation kinetics during sporozoite immunization in 15 volunteers by ex vivo lymphocyte flow cytometry analysis. Both CD4 and CD8 T cells as well as γδT cells, NK cells and CD3+CD56+ cells showed increased activation and proliferation following immunization. [Parasite Immunol] Abstract

HIV

IFITM Proteins Restrict HIV-1 Infection by Antagonizing the Envelope Glycoprotein
Scientists provide evidence that interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins, particularly IFITM2 and IFITM3, specifically antagonize the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env), thereby inhibiting viral infection. IFITM proteins interact with HIV-1 Env in viral producer cells, leading to impaired Env processing and virion incorporation. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

The Depsipeptide Romidepsin Reverses HIV-1 Latency In Vivo
Investigators report a proof-of-concept Phase Ib/IIa trial where six aviremic HIV-1 infected adults received intravenous romidepsin once weekly for three weeks while maintaining antiretroviral treatment. Romidepsin did not decrease the number of HIV-specific T cells or inhibit T cell cytokine production. [PLoS Pathog]
Full Article | Press Release

Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Shares Features of Both Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Lentiviral Infections
Previously, the natural simian immunodeficiency virus infection of one chimpanzee, and the experimental infection of six chimpanzees was reported, with limited follow-up. Here, the authors present a long-term study of these seven animals, with a retrospective re-examination of the early stages of infection. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

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REVIEWS
Immune Defense against Candida Fungal Infections
The authors describe how innate sensing of fungi by pattern recognition receptors and the interplay of immune cells (both myeloid and lymphoid) with non-immune cells, including platelets and epithelial cells, shapes host immunity to Candida species. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the Immunology of Infectious Disease research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Stribild Demonstrates Improved Safety and Efficacy among Women who Switched from a Multi-Pill Antiretroviral Drug Regimen
Results from the first Phase III HIV study to enroll only women show improved safety and efficacy of the drug Stribild over multi-pill antiretroviral drug regimens. [Press release from the American Society for Microbiology discussing research presented at the 55th Interscience Conference of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), San Diego] Press Release

TAXIS Pharmaceuticals Demonstrates Synergistic Efficacy against MRSA and Low Resistance Frequency with TXA709/Cefdinir Combination
In a poster presentation, researchers presented pre-clinical in vitro and in vivo data showing that TXA709 acts synergistically with cefdinir against isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) while also showing that the combination reduces the frequency of resistance, a measure of the degree of antibiotic resistance. [Press release from TAXIS Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (PR Newswire Association LLC) discussing research presented at the 55th Annual Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), San Diego] Press Release

Melinta Therapeutics Demonstrates Potency of Delafloxacin against Bacteria Associated with Respiratory Tract Infections
Melinta Therapeutics announced in vitro results demonstrating delafloxacin’s activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. [Press release from Melinta Therapeutics, Inc. (Globe Newswire) discussing research presented at the 55th Annual Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), San Diego] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Inovio Receives $24 Million Option Grant from DARPA to Advance Ebola Program Development
Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has exercised its option to provide an additional $24 million to support the Inovio-led development of multiple treatment and prevention approaches against Ebola. [Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

HIV Cure, Better Therapies Subjects of $6.3 Million in Grants to Pitt’s Center for Vaccine Research Scientists
A husband-wife team researching a cure for HIV/AIDS at the University of Pittsburgh Center for Vaccine Research recently received $6.3 million total in two grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The grants are the latest in the team’s successful run garnering NIH support for their HIV research, now totaling $23 million since they came to Pitt six years ago. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center] Press Release

Scripps Florida Scientists Awarded $6 Million to Develop Alternative HIV/AIDS Vaccine
Scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute have been awarded up to nearly $6 million from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to develop a revolutionary HIV/AIDS alternative vaccine that has demonstrated great potential in animal models. [The Scripps Research Institute] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
US Drug Company to Cut 5,000% Price Rise after Backlash
A US drug company that faced a backlash after raising the price of a drug used by AIDS patients by over 5,000% has said it will lower the price. Martin Shkreli, the head of Turing Pharmaceuticals, told US media he would drop the price following the outcry, but did not say by how much. [BBC News] Editorial

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Immunology 2016
May 13-17, 2016
Seattle, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the Immunology of Infectious Disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Canadian Research Chair Tier 1 – Systems Immunology (University of Manitoba)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Membrane Structural Biology and Virus-Host Interactions (Harbin Institute of Technology)

Assistant Professor – Immunology (Erasmus University Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Host-Pathogen Interactions (Cedars-Sinai)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Molecular Immunology (GlaxoSmithKline)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology and Virology (Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research)

Faculty Positions – Virology (NYU School of Medicine)

PhD Positions – Infection Biology and Immunology (ZIBI Graduate School)

Postdoctoral Position – HIV Vaccine Immunology (Dana-Farber Cancer Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Viral Immunology (Emory University)


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