Volume 3.35 | Sep 16

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.35 September 16, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Researchers Reawaken Sleeping HIV in Patient Cells to Eliminate the Virus
Researchers have identified a new class of drugs that may be used to purge pockets of dormant HIV from a patient’s body, eliminating the virus once and for all. [Press release from Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute discussing publication in Cell Host & Microbe]
Press Release | Full Article | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Siglec1 Suppresses Antiviral Innate Immune Response by Inducing TBK1 Degradation via the Ubiquitin Ligase TRIM27
Researchers found that the expression of lectin family member Siglec1 was upregulated by viral infection in macrophages, which was dependent on the interferon/JAK/STAT1 signaling pathway. [Cell Res] Full Article

Double-Negative T Resident Memory Cells of the Lung React to Influenza Virus Infection via CD11chi Dendritic Cells
Scientists addressed the kinetics, differentiation, and antigen specificity of CD4CD8 double-negative (DN) T cells. NK1.1 DNT cells had a separate antigen-specific repertoire in the steady-state lung, and expanded rapidly in response to influenza A virus infection, irrespectively of the severity of infection. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Bone Marrow Transplantation Alters Lung Antigen-Presenting Cells to Promote TH17 Response and the Development of Pneumonitis and Fibrosis following Gammaherpesvirus Infection
Investigators developed a model of syngeneic bone marrow transplantion (BMT) followed by infection with murine gamma herpesvirus-68 that results in pneumonitis and fibrosis and mimics human “noninfectious” hematopoietic stem cell transplantation complications. CD4 T cells in BMT mice are skewed toward interleukin-17A rather than interferon-γ production. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Standardization of the Antibody-Dependent Respiratory Burst Assay with Human Neutrophils and Plasmodium falciparum Malaria
Scientists optimized the antibody-dependent respiratory burst assay, which assesses the ability of antibodies to activate the release of reactive oxygen species from human neutrophils in response to P. falciparum blood-stage parasites. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Vaccination with Klebsiella pneumoniae-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Protects against Bacteria-Induced Lethality via Both Humoral and Cellular Immunity
Scientists evaluated whether K. pneumoniae-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) confer protection against bacteria-induced lethality. K. pneumoniae-derived EVs isolated from in vitro bacterial culture supernatants induced innate immunity, including the upregulation of co-stimulatory molecule expression and proinflammatory mediator production. [Exp Mol Med] Full Article

HIV

Strain-Specific V3 and CD4 Binding Site Autologous HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies Select Neutralization-Resistant Viruses
Researchers describe the development and evolution in vivo of antibodies distinguished by their target specificity for third variable (V3) and CD4 binding site epitopes on autologous tier 2 viruses but not on heterologous tier 2 viruses. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Gut Immune Dysfunction through Impaired Innate Pattern Recognition Receptor Expression and Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis in Chronic SIV Infection
Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model of AIDS, investigators found a robust increase in pattern recognition receptors and inflammatory cytokine gene expression during the acute SIV infection in both peripheral blood and gut mucosa, coinciding with viral replication. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

The Role of Antigen Presenting Cells in the Induction of HIV-1 Latency in Resting CD4+ T-Cells
Scientists determined whether different antigen presenting cells, including subpopulations of dendritic cells and monocytes, were able to induce post-integration latent infection in resting CD4+ T-cells, and examined potential cell interactions that may be involved using RNA-seq. [Retrovirology] Full Article

Combinatorial Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Vaccination Reduces Viral Pathogenesis following SHIV89.6P-Challenge
Researchers used a combinatorial approach in which following engraftment of genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells, pigtailed macaques were vaccinated with a previously developed vaccinia-based vaccine expressing SIV-Gag, Pol. Using this dual therapy approach, lower viremia was detected in both the acute and chronic phase of disease with levels reaching near the lower limits of detection. [Gene Ther] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Immune Control of Oncogenic γ-Herpesviruses
The authors summarize the fine-tuned balance between immune responses, immune escape and cellular transformation by human γ-herpesviruses, which results in life-long persistent, but asymptomatic infection with immune control in most virus carriers. [Curr Opin Virol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the Immunology of Infectious Disease research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
The Medicines Company Announces Participation at ICAAC/ICC 2015 Meeting
The Medicines Company announced that 18 presentations on its infectious disease programs will be presented. [Press release from The Medicines Company discussing research to be presented at the Interscience Conference of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC) and the International Congress of Chemotherapy and Infection (ICC) 2015 Joint Meeting, San Diego] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Bavarian Nordic Receives Contract Valued at USD 9 Million from Janssen as Part of Advanced Development of Prime-Boost Ebola Vaccine
Bavarian Nordic A/S announced the award of a subcontract from Crucell Holland B.V., one of Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson, valued at USD 9 million. This is part of a contract awarded to Janssen by the U.S. Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority to support the advanced development and manufacturing of the Ebola prime-boost vaccine regimen which consists of Bavarian Nordic’s MVA-BN® Filo and Ad26.ZEBOV from Janssen. [Bavarian Nordic A/S] Press Release

IAVI and CureVac Partner to Accelerate Development and Testing of AIDS Vaccine Candidates
International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) and CureVac are partnering to accelerate the development of AIDS vaccines, utilizing novel immunogens developed by IAVI and partners, delivered via CureVac’s novel messenger RNA technology. [CureVac GmbH] Press Release

Research Power against Fungal Disease Revealed at Manchester Center Launch
The Manchester Fungal Infection Group is a new international center of excellence for fungal infection biology and translational antifungal research at The University of Manchester. It is integrating its research with that of clinicians and industry. [The University of Manchester] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 29th Annual Canadian Society for Immunology (CSI) Conference
April 1-6, 2016
Ottawa, Canada

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the Immunology of Infectious Disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Scientist – Membrane Structural Biology and Virus-Host Interactions (Harbin Institute of Technology)

Assistant Professor – Immunology (Erasmus University Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Host-Pathogen Interactions (Cedars-Sinai)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Molecular Immunology (GlaxoSmithKline)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology and Virology (Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research)

Faculty Positions – Virology (NYU School of Medicine)

PhD Positions – Infection Biology and Immunology (ZIBI Graduate School)

Postdoctoral Position – HIV Vaccine Immunology (Dana-Farber Cancer Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Molecular Microbiology/Immunology (The University of Tennessee)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Viral Immunology (Emory University)


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