Volume 3.31 | Aug 19

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.31 August 19, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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New Research Helps Explain Why a Deadly Blood Cancer Often Affects Children with Malaria
Working in mice, scientists found that the same enzyme that helps create antibodies that fight off the malaria parasite also causes DNA damage that can lead to Burkitt’s lymphoma. [Press release from The Rockefeller University discussing publication in Cell] Press Release | Full Article | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Pathogenic NLRP3 Inflammasome Activity during Candida Infection Is Negatively Regulated by IL-22 via Activation of NLRC4 and IL-1Ra
Researchers found that NLRP3 inflammasome activation promotes neutrophil recruitment and inflammation during infection and that this activity is counteracted by IL-22. Mechanistically, IL-22 activated NLRC4 for sustained production of the IL-1 receptor antagonist IL-1Ra, which restrained NLRP3 activity. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Intestinal Macrophages Arising from CCR2+ Monocytes Control Pathogen Infection by Activating Innate Lymphoid Cells
Investigators showed that depletion of CCR2+ monocytes results in impaired clearance of the intestinal pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. After infection, the de novo recruited CCR2+ monocytes gave rise to CD11c+CD11b+F4/80+CD103 intestinal macrophages within the lamina propria. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Viral Source-Independent High Susceptibility of Dendritic Cells to HTLV-1 Infection Compared to T Lymphocytes
Researchers first determined that human primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells were more susceptible to HTLV-1 infection than their autologous lymphocyte counterparts after contact with chronically infected cells. Next, a comparison of infection efficiency using non-concentrated or concentrated supernatant from infected cells as well as purified viral biofilm was performed. [J Virol] Abstract

Increased Immune Response Variability during Simultaneous Viral Co-Infection Leads to Unpredictability in CD8 T Cell Immunity and Pathogenesis
Using two different models of co-infection, including the well-studied lymphocytic choriomeningitis and Pichinde viruses, several differences were observed within the CD8 T cell responses to either virus. [J Virol] Abstract

Establishment of Functional Influenza Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cell Memory Pools after Intramuscular Immunization
Scientists examined the establishment of cross-reactive CD8+ T cell immunity in mice following immunization with live A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) influenza virus via two non-productive inoculation routes. They found that immunization via the intramuscular route established functional influenza-virus specific memory CD8+ T cell pools capable of cross-reactive recall responses. [Vaccine] Abstract


Incomplete Neutralization and Deviation from Sigmoidal Neutralization Curves for HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies
Using both a 278 panel of pseudoviruses in a CD4 T-cell assay and a panel of 117 viruses in the TZM-bl assay, researchers found that broadly neutralizing HIV monoclonal antibodies targeting many neutralizing epitopes of the spike had neutralization profiles for at least one virus that plateaued at <90%. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

IL-21 and Probiotic Therapy Improve Th17 Frequencies, Microbial Translocation, and Microbiome in ARV-Treated, SIV-Infected Macaques
Scientists previously demonstrated that oral probiotics promote increased intestinal CD4+ T-cell reconstitution during antiretroviral (ARV) treatment in a non-human primate model of HIV infection; however, essential mucosal T-cell subsets, such as Th17 cells, had limited recovery. Here, they sought to promote Th17 cell recovery by administering interleukin (IL)-21 to a limited number of ARV-treated, probiotic-supplemented, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected pigtailed macaques. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Type 3 Innate Lymphoid Cell Depletion Is Mediated by TLRs in Lymphoid Tissues of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques
Investigators analyzed innate lymphoid cell (ILC) type 3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques and uninfected controls. Notably, ILC3 could be induced to undergo apoptosis by microbial products through the TLR2 and/or TLR4 pathway. [FASEB J] Abstract

Preferential Loss of Gut-Homing α4β7 CD4+ T Cells and Their Circulating Functional Subsets in Acute HIV-1 Infection
Researchers conducted a cohort study to investigate whether acute HIV-1 infection induced abnormalities in gut-homing α4β7 CD4+ T cells and their functional subsets. They found that circulating gut-homing α4β7 CD4+ T cells were preferentially depleted during acute HIV-1 infection and were positively correlated with absolute CD4+ T-cell count in blood. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

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Staphylococcal Manipulation of Host Immune Responses
The authors highlight how Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors inhibit complement activation, block and destroy phagocytic cells and modify host B cell and T cell responses, and discuss how these insights might be useful for the development of novel therapies against infections with antibiotic resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus. [Nat Rev Microbiol] Abstract

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$52 Million NIH Grant Advances Clinical and Translational Research at UC San Diego
The Clinical and Translational Research Institute at University of California, San Diego has received a five-year Clinical and Translational Science Award for approximately $52 million from the National Center for Advancing Translational Science, part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). [UC San Diego Health] Press Release

Emergent BioSolutions Receives $44 Million CDC Contract to Further Advance Vaccinia Immune Globulin Intravenous Program
Emergent BioSolutions Inc. announced that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has exercised options under contract 200-2012-52242 for the supply of Vaccinia Immune Globulin (VIGIV) into the U.S. Strategic National Stockpile. VIGIV is a therapeutic licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of complications due to smallpox vaccination. [Emergent BioSolutions Inc.] Press Release

ExeGi Pharma Partners with NIH-Funded AIDS Clinical Trials Group to Study Probiotic in People Living with HIV
ExeGi Pharma has announced participation in a clinical trial funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), to study the probiotic Visbiome™ in people living with HIV. [ExeGi Pharma] Press Release

Bavarian Nordic Initiates Phase I Clinical Trial of MVA-BN® in Respiratory Syncitial Virus (RSV)
Bavarian Nordic A/S announced the initiation of a Phase I clinical study of its MVA-BN® RSV vaccine candidate against RSV, the first study to evaluate the vaccine candidate in humans. [Bavarian Nordic A/S] Press Release

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NEW 16th International Congress of Immunology
August 21-26, 2016
Melbourne, Australia

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NEW Postdoctoral Position – HIV Vaccine Immunology (Dana-Farber Cancer Institute)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Molecular Biologist/Genomics (International Livestock Research Institute)

Senior Scientist – Cellular/Viral Immunology (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Molecular Microbiology/Immunology (The University of Tennessee)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Viral Immunology (Emory University)

Postdoctoral Position – HIV Cure Research (University of Washington)

Research Assistant – Immunotherapy for HIV Infection (California Institute of Technology)

PhD Studentship – Veterinary and Animal Sciences (University of Milan)

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