Volume 3.30 | Aug 12

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.30 August 12, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Single Dose Ebola Vaccine Is Safe and Effective in Monkeys against Outbreak Strain
Scientists report that a single dose of an experimental Ebola virus (EBOV) vaccine completely protects cynomolgus macaques against the current EBOV outbreak strain, EBOV-Makona, when given at least seven days before exposure, and partially protects them if given three days prior. [Press release from the National Institutes of Health discussing online prepublication in Science] Press Release | Full Article
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
RabGDIα Is a Negative Regulator of Interferon-γ–Inducible GTPase-Dependent Cell-Autonomous Immunity to Toxoplasma gondii
Scientists showed that Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor α (RabGDIα), originally identified as a Rab small GTPase inhibitor, is a negative regulator of IFN-γ–inducible GTPases in cell-autonomous immunity to the intracellular pathogen T. gondii. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Type I IFN Induction via Poly-ICLC Protects Mice against Cryptococcosis
Investigators sought to determine the role of type I IFN induction in host defense against cryptococci by treatment of Cryptococcus neoformans infected mice with poly-ICLC, a dsRNA virus mimic. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Herpes Virus Entry Mediator Licenses Listeria Infection Induced Immunopathology through Control of Type I Interferon
Researchers found that herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) plays an important role for Listeria infection induced lymphocyte apoptosis. HVEM is partially required for Listeria induced interferon-I production in the spleen, particularly in macrophages. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Asymptomatic Helminth Infection in Active Tuberculosis Is Associated with Increased Regulatory and Th-2 Responses and a Lower Sputum Smear Positivity
Scientists investigated whether asymptomatic intestinal helminth infection alters the clinical signs and symptoms as well as the cell mediated immune responses in patients with active tuberculosis. [PLoS Negl Trop Dis] Full Article


Exposure to SIV In Utero Results in Reduced Viral Loads and Altered Responsiveness to Postnatal Challenge
Researchers hypothesized that fetal exposure to HIV may render the fetus tolerant to the virus, thus reducing damage caused by immune activation during infection later in life. To test this hypothesis, fetal rhesus macaques were injected with the attenuated virus SIVmac1A11 in utero and challenged with pathogenic SIVmac239 one year after birth. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract

Breakthrough of SIV Strain smE660 Challenge in SIV Strain Mac239-Vaccinated Rhesus Macaques despite Potent Autologous Neutralizing Antibody Responses
Investigators determined serum neutralizing antibodies titers against breakthrough transmitted/founder SIVsmE660-derived envelope glycoprotein variants from 14 rhesus macaques immunized with SIVmac239-based DNA-prime/modified vaccinia virus Ankara-boost vaccine regimens that included GM-CSF or CD40L adjuvants and conferred significant but incomplete protection against repeated low-dose intrarectal challenge. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

Epigenetic Mechanisms, T-Cell Activation, and CCR5 Genetics Interact to Regulate T-Cell Expression of CCR5, the Major HIV-1 Coreceptor
Scientists demonstrated that a unifying mechanism for wide variations of expression levels of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) between T-cell subsets and among individuals is differences in constitutive and T-cell activation-induced DNA methylation status of CCR5 cis-regulatory regions. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA]
Abstract | Full Article

Molecular Insights into the Inhibition of HIV-1 Infection Using a CD4 Domain-1-Specific Monoclonal Antibody
The authors report on an anti-CD4 mAb (15A7) that displays a unique binding specificity for domain 1 of CD4, whose epitope partially overlaps with the gp120 binding region. Moreover, 15A7 displays a much stronger binding affinity to CD4+ cell lines after HIV infection. [Antiviral Res] Abstract

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MicroRNA Regulation of Viral Immunity, Latency, and Carcinogenesis of Selected Tumor Viruses and HIV
The authors summarize the potential roles and mechanisms of viral and cellular microRNAs in the host–pathogen interactions during infection with selected tumor viruses and HIV. [Rev Med Virol] Abstract

Syncytial Apoptosis Signaling Network Induced by the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Complex: An Overview
Investigators present a detailed and curated map of the syncytial apoptosis signaling network, aimed at simplifying the whole mechanism that they have characterized at the molecular level in the last 15 years. The simplification of this complex network paves the way for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to eradicate HIV-1 infection. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

The Role of Th17 and Treg Responses in the Pathogenesis of RSV Infection
Two subsets of the cellular immune response, the T helper 17 cell (Th17) and the regulatory T cell (Treg), and more particularly the balance between these two subsets, might play a significant role in the pathogenesis of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. [Pediatr Res] Abstract

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Northwestern Receives $17 Million Grant for HIV Prevention Research
Northwestern Medicine scientists have received a 5-year, $17.5 million grant from the National Institutes of Health for an interdisciplinary project that aims to invent, develop and test an implantable drug delivery system to protect high-risk individuals from HIV infection for up to a year at a time. [Northwestern Medicine] Press Release

NAFDAC Grants License for the Importing of the Proprietary Patented Therapy Lodonal™ as an Adjunct Treatment for HIV/AIDS and Opportunistic Infections
Immune Therapeutics Inc. announced that they have received approvals from the Nigerian National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) for the importation of Lodonal™. [Immune Therapeutics Inc.] Press Release

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National Institutes of Health (United States)

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Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 45th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Australasian Society for Immunology
November 29-December 3, 2015
Canberra, Australia

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NEW Scientist – Molecular Biologist/Genomics (International Livestock Research Institute)

NEW Senior Scientist – Cellular/Viral Immunology (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Molecular Microbiology/Immunology (The University of Tennessee)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Viral Immunology (Emory University)

Postdoctoral Position – HIV Cure Research (University of Washington)

Research Assistant – Immunotherapy for HIV Infection (California Institute of Technology)

Postdoctoral Position – Translational Immunology (University of Utah School of Medicine)

PhD Studentship – Veterinary and Animal Sciences (University of Milan)

Faculty Positions – Immunology/Infectious Disease (The Wistar Institute)

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