Volume 3.29 | Aug 5

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.29 August 5, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Researchers Discover Immune System’s ‘Trojan Horse’
Investigators have found that human cells use viruses as Trojan horses, transporting a messenger that encourages the immune system to fight the very virus that carries it. The discovery could have implications for the design of new vaccines. [Press release from Oxford University discussing online prepublication in Science] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Transmission of Innate Immune Signaling by Packaging of cGAMP in Viral Particles
Scientists showed that in cells producing virus, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-synthesized 2′3′-cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) can be packaged in viral particles and extracellular vesicles. cGAMP transfer by viral particles to dendritic cells activated innate immunity and antiviral defenses. [Science] Abstract

BNIP3- and BNIP3L-Mediated Mitophagy Promotes the Generation of Natural Killer Cell Memory
The authors found that as proliferating natural killer cells accumulated dysfunctional mitochondria during viral infection, a protective mitophagy pathway was induced during the contraction phase to promote their survival in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Protection against Dengue Disease by Synthetic Nucleic Acid Antibody Prophylaxis/Immunotherapy
Scientists demonstrated that simple intramuscular delivery by electroporation of synthetic DNA plasmids engineered to express modified human neutralizing antibodies against multiple dengue virus (DENV) serotypes confers protection against DENV disease and prevents antibody-dependent enhancement of disease in mice. [Sci Rep] Full Article | Press Release

Modulation of Influenza Vaccine Immune Responses Using an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Kinase Inhibitor
Researchers hypothesized that epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRIs) may have value as cutaneous immune response modifiers, and determined the effects of topical application of an irreversible EGFRI on a well-established murine model of influenza vaccination. [Sci Rep] Full Article


Diversion of HIV-1 Vaccine–Induced Immunity by gp41-Microbiota Cross-Reactive Antibodies
Researchers studied the nature of the vaccine-induced antibody (Ab) response to HIV-1 envelope (Env). HIV-1-reactive plasma Ab titers were higher to Env gp41 than gp120, and repertoire analysis demonstrated that 93% of HIV-1-reactive Abs from memory B cells was to Env gp41. [Science] Abstract | Press Release

Quality and Quantity of TFH Cells Are Critical for Broad Antibody Development in SHIVAD8 Infection
Researchers used nonhuman primates to investigate the relationship in the early stage of chronic SHIVAD8 (simian-human immunodeficiency virus AD8) infection between envelope (Env)–specific T follicular helper (TFH) cells, Env-specific B cells, virus, and the generation of broadly neutralizing antibodies during later infection. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract

Synergistic Reactivation of Latent HIV Expression by Ingenol-3-Angelate, PEP005, Targeted NF-kB Signaling in Combination with JQ1 Induced p-TEFb Activation
Investigators report that PEP005, the only active component in a previously FDA approved drug for the topical treatment of precancerous actinic keratosis, can effectively reactivate latent HIV in vitro and ex vivo with relatively low cellular toxicity. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Press Release

Elite Control, Gut CD4 T Cell Sparing, and Enhanced Mucosal T Cell Responses in Macaca nemestrina Infected by an SIV Lacking a gp41 Trafficking Motif
In pig-tailed macaques ΔGY replicated acutely to high peak plasma RNA levels identical to SIVmac239, and caused only transient infection of CD4+ T cells in the gut lamina propria and no microbial translocation. [J Virol] Abstract

Innate Immune Activity Correlates with CD4 T Cell-Associated HIV-1 DNA Decline during Latency-Reversing Treatment with Panobinostat
The authors analyzed immune factors associated with changes in proviral HIV-1 DNA levels during treatment with the potent histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat in a human clinical trial involving 15 antiretroviral combination therapy-treated HIV-1 patients. [J Virol] Abstract

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Controlled One-on-One Encounters between Immune Cells and Microbes Reveal Mechanisms of Phagocytosis
The author discusses an alternative, interdisciplinary strategy to dissect fundamental mechanisms of immune-cell interactions with bacteria and fungi. He shows how biophysical analyses of single-live-cell/single-target encounters are revealing universal principles of immune-cell phagocytosis, while also dispelling misconceptions about the minimum required mechanistic determinants of this process. [Biophys J] Abstract

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UC Davis Researchers Awarded Grant for HIV Clinical Trial Using Stem Cells
The state stem cell agency, the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, approved funding a UC Davis Health System research team to conduct a clinical trial using bioengineered stem cells to treat HIV patients suffering from lymphoma, one of the deadly conditions associated with the disease. [UC Davis Health System] Press Release

Kineta Awarded NIH/NIAID Contract to Develop New Therapies for Viral Diseases
Kineta, Inc. announced it has been awarded a new National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) contract for $1.4 million for the base period, with options to exercise an additional $2.52 million over two to three years to develop its broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics to address a variety of viral diseases. [Kineta, Inc.] Press Release

GSK’s Malaria Candidate Vaccine, Mosquirix™ (RTS,S), Receives Positive Opinion from European Regulators for the Prevention of Malaria in Young Children in Sub-Saharan Africa
GSK announced that the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use of the European Medicines Agency has adopted a positive scientific opinion for its malaria candidate vaccine Mosquirix™ in children aged 6 weeks to 17 months. [GlaxoSmithKline plc] Press Release

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NEW Keystone Symposium: Cell Biology and Immunology of Persistent Infection
January 31-February 4, 2016
Banff, Canada

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NEW Postdoctoral Fellowship – Viral Immunology (Emory University)

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Scientific Marketing Specialist – Immunology (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Tenure-Track Investigator – HIV Dynamics and Replication Program (National Cancer Institute)

Science Director (Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise)

Postdoctoral Position – HIV Cure Research (University of Washington)

Research Assistant – Immunotherapy for HIV Infection (California Institute of Technology)

Postdoctoral Position – Translational Immunology (University of Utah School of Medicine)

PhD Studentship – Veterinary and Animal Sciences (University of Milan)

Faculty Positions – Immunology/Infectious Disease (The Wistar Institute)

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