Volume 3.28 | Jul 29

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.28 July 29, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Researchers Link HIV Susceptibility to Little-Understood Immune Cell Class
High levels of diversity among natural killer cells may strongly predispose people to infection by HIV, and may be driven by prior viral exposures. [Press release from Stanford University School of Medicine discussing publication in Science Translational Medicine] Press Release | Video | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Skin-Resident Memory CD4+ T Cells Enhance Protection against Leishmania major Infection
Researchers identified a population of skin-resident Leishmania-specific memory CD4+ T cells. These cells produce IFN-γ and remain resident in the skin when transplanted by skin graft onto naive mice. [J Exp Med] Abstract | Press Release

Evaluation of Candidate Vaccine Approaches for MERS-CoV
Scientists showed that immunogens based on full-length viral Spike (S) DNA and S1 subunit protein elicit robust serum-neutralizing activity against several Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) strains in mice and non-human primates. [Nat Commun] Full Article | Press Release

Prophylactic and Postexposure Efficacy of a Potent Human Monoclonal Antibody against MERS Coronavirus
Researchers describe, for the first time to their knowledge, the isolation of a potent Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-coronavirus (CoV)–neutralizing antibody from memory B cells of an infected individual. The antibody, named LCA60, binds to a novel site on the spike protein and potently neutralizes infection of multiple MERS-CoV isolates by interfering with the binding to the cellular receptor CD26. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

Keap1 Regulates Inflammatory Signaling in Mycobacterium avium-Infected Human Macrophages
Investigators report a role for Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), an oxidative stress sensor, in regulating inflammation induced by infection with M. avium in human primary macrophages. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article

Early Effector CD8 T Cells Display Plasticity in Populating the Short-Lived Effector and Memory-Precursor Pools following Bacterial or Viral Infection
To test if early effector cell (EEC) populations were pre-committed to either an memory precursor effector cell or short-lived effector cell fate, scientists purified EECs from mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes or vesicular stomatitis virus, where the relative frequency of each population is known to be different at the peak of the response. [Sci Rep] Full Article

HIV

Residual Immune Activation in Combined Antiretroviral Therapy-Treated Patients with Maximally Suppressed Viremia
Residual immune activation was studied in 51 HIV-infected individuals and compared with results in 20 healthy blood donors. Higher T-cell activation and IP-10/CXCL10, MIG/CXCL9 and sCD14 plasma levels persisted in HIV+ groups. [AIDS] Abstract

Quantification of Naive and Memory T-Cell Turnover during HIV-1 Infection
Scientists used long-term in vivo 2H2O labeling and mathematical modeling to estimate the average lifespans of naive and memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in untreated and combination antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV-1-infected individuals. [AIDS] Abstract

Reduced SIV Replication in Macrophages of Sooty Mangabeys Is Associated with Increased Expression of Host Restriction Factors
To test the hypothesis that sooty mangabey macrophages are intrinsically more resistant to SIV infection than rhesus macaque macrophages, researchers undertook an in vitro comparative assessment of monocyte-derived macrophages from both nonhuman primate species. [J Virol] Abstract

Increased Ex Vivo Cell Death of Central Memory CD4 T Cells in Treated HIV Infected Individuals with Unsatisfactory Immune Recovery
Immunodiscordant individuals showed alterations in memory CD4 T-cell differentiation associated with a short ex vivo lifespan of central memory cells and an in vivo low central/transitional memory cell ratio. These alterations may contribute to poor CD4 T-cell repopulation. [J Transl Med] Full Article

A Chimeric HIV-1 gp120 Fused with Vaccinia Virus 14K (A27) Protein as an HIV Immunogen
Investigators report the generation and characterization of a chimeric HIV-1 gp120 protein (termed gp120-14K) by fusing gp120 from clade B with the vaccinia virus 14K oligomeric protein. In human monocyte-derived dendritic cells, gp120-14K protein upregulates the levels of several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines associated with Th1 innate immune responses. [PLoS One] Full Article

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REVIEWS
Guarding the Frontiers: The Biology of Type III Interferons
Whereas type I interferons (IFNs) act globally, IFN-λs primarily target mucosal epithelial cells and protect them against the frequent viral attacks that are typical for barrier tissues. IFN-λs thereby help to maintain healthy mucosal surfaces through immune protection, without the significant immune-related pathogenic risk associated with type I IFN responses. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

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SCIENCE NEWS
Possible Path toward First Anti-MERS Drugs
Researchers from the National Cancer Institute presented three newly determined crystal structures, which collectively provide a starting point for structure-based drug design efforts to combat Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). [Press release from the American Institute of Physics (AlphaGalileo) discussing research presented at the American Crystallographic Association (ACA) 2015 Meeting, Philadelphia] Press Release

HIV Control through Treatment Durably Prevents Heterosexual Transmission of Virus
​Antiretroviral treatment that consistently suppresses HIV is highly effective at preventing sexual transmission of the virus in heterosexual couples where one person is HIV-infected and the other is not, investigators report. [Press release from the National Institutes of Health discussing research presented at the 8th International AIDS Society (IAS) Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention, Vancouver] Press Release

InnaVirVax Presents Positive Results of IVVAC-3S/P1 Study
InnaVirVax announced the overall results of its Phase I/IIa clinical study (IVVAC-3S/P1) of its VAC-3S immunotherapy, which is currently in development. [Press release from InnaVirVax (News-Medical.net) discussing research presented at the 8th International AIDS Society (IAS) Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention, Vancouver] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Wayne State to Lead $4.8 Million NIH Study that Will Teach an Old Drug to Maintain Its Tricks
With the help of a nearly $4.9 million, five-year grant from the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Wayne State University School of Medicine researchers are leading a landmark multi-center, international study that will provide essential information to clinicians for use of polymoxin B in critically ill patients where no other treatments will work. [Wayne State University] Press Release

TSRI Researcher Wins $4.5 Million in Grants to Support Development of AIDS Vaccine
The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) has been awarded two grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation totaling more than $4.5 million to fund efforts to develop a vaccine against HIV/AIDS. [The Scripps Research Institute] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
Toward an HIV Vaccine: A Scientific Journey
From the first human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine trials in the 1980s to the present, a tension has existed between the desire to move quickly to clinical trials to stem the spread of the epidemic and the view that research into HIV pathogenesis and host immunity were necessary predicates to and informative of vaccine design. Today, these approaches are coalescing into concomitant paths toward a safe and effective HIV vaccine. [Science] Editorial | Press Release

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Frontiers in Basic Immunology 2015
October 8-9, 2015
Bethesda, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Tenure-Track Investigator – HIV Dynamics and Replication Program (National Cancer Institute)

NEW Science Director (Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – HIV Cure Research (University of Washington)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientific Marketing Specialist – Immunology (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Assistant – Immunotherapy for HIV Infection (California Institute of Technology)

Research Assistant – Molecular Immunology of HIV (University of Oxford)

Postdoctoral Position – Translational Immunology (University of Utah School of Medicine)

PhD Studentship – Veterinary and Animal Sciences (University of Milan)

Faculty Positions – Immunology/Infectious Disease (The Wistar Institute)


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