Volume 3.25 | Jul 8

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.25 July 8, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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TOP STORY
Study Shows Novel HIV Vaccine Regimen Provides Robust Protection in Non-Human Primates
Scientists demonstrated that a heterologous prime-boost HIV-1 vaccine regimen protected 50 percent of vaccinated non-human primates against challenges with the simian immunodeficiency virus. [Press release from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center discussing online prepublication in Science]
Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Smad2 and Smad3 Inversely Regulate TGF-β Autoinduction in Clostridium butyricum-Activated Dendritic Cells
Investigators demonstrated that a gram-positive probiotic bacterial strain, C. butyricum, promoted induced regulatory T cell generation in the intestine through induction of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) from lamina propria dendritic cells. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Pre- and Postexposure Efficacy of Fully Human Antibodies against Spike Protein in a Novel Humanized Mouse Model of MERS-CoV Infection
Scientists showed the rapid generation of fully human neutralizing antibodies against the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and development of a humanized mouse model for MERS-CoV infection, which was used to demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of the isolated antibodies. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article | Press Release | Video

Long Noncoding RNA Derived from CD244 Signaling Epigenetically Controls CD8+ T-Cell Immune Responses in Tuberculosis Infection
Investigators showed that active human tuberculosis infection up-regulates CD244 and CD244 signaling-associated molecules in CD8+ T cells and that blockade of CD244 signaling enhances production of IFN-γ and TNF-α. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article

Protective mAbs and Cross-Reactive mAbs Raised by Immunization with Engineered Marburg Virus GPs
Researchers present ten monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) elicited by immunization of mice using recombinant mucin-deleted glycoproteins (GPs) from different Marburg virus (MARV) strains. Surprisingly, two of the mAbs raised against MARV GP also cross-react with the mucin-deleted GP cores of all tested ebolaviruses, but these epitopes are masked differently by the mucin-like domains themselves. [PLoS Pathog]
Full Article | Press Release

Role of CD4+Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells in Protection Induced by a Live, Attenuated, Replicating Type-I Vaccine Strain of Toxoplasma gondii
Vaccination with the live attenuated T. gondii Mic1.3KO strain induced long-lasting immunity against challenge with T. gondii Type I and Type II strains. The involvement of T regulatory cells in the protection mechanism was investigated. [Infect Immun] Abstract

HIV

IL-21 Induces Antiviral MicroRNA-29 in CD4 T Cells to Limit HIV-1 Infection
Scientists took advantage of tractable primary human lymphoid organ aggregate cultures to show that interleukin-21 (IL-21) directly suppresses HIV-1 replication, and identify microRNA-29 as an antiviral factor induced by IL-21 in CD4 T cells. [Nat Commun] Full Article | Press Release

The Effect of Timing of Antiretroviral Therapy on CD4+ T-Cell Reconstitution in the Intestine of HIV-Infected Patients
Investigators studied absolute numbers, differentiation, and activation of mucosal CD4+ T cells at different stages of HIV infection and assessed the effect of timing of combination antiretroviral therapy initiation on this cell population. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Increased Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in the Female Reproductive Tract Are Associated with Altered Expression of Proteases, Mucosal Barrier Proteins, and an Influx of HIV-Susceptible Target Cells
Elevated inflammatory cytokines at mucosal surfaces have been associated with HIV susceptibility, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Researchers characterized the soluble mucosal proteome associated with elevated cytokine expression in the female reproductive tract. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Codelivery of Envelope Protein in Alum with MVA Vaccine Induces CXCR3-Biased CXCR5+ and CXCR5 CD4 T Cell Responses in Rhesus Macaques
Scientists investigated the CD4+ T follicular helper (TFH) response to HIV vaccination and its relative contribution to magnitude and quality of vaccine-elicited Ab titers. They determined the frequency of vaccine-induced CD4+ T cells coexpressing chemokine receptor CXCR5 in blood and whether these responses were representative of lymph node TFH responses. [J Immunol] Abstract

Incorporation of a GPI-Anchored Engineered Cytokine as a Molecular Adjuvant Enhances the Immunogenicity of HIV VLPs
A membrane-anchored form of GIFT4 was constructed by fusing a glycolipid (GPI)-anchoring sequence and incorporated into Env-enriched HIV virus-like particles (VLPs) as a molecular adjuvant. Guinea pigs were immunized with the resulting HIV VLPs through an intramuscular priming-intranasal boosting immunization route. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Th17 and Th17/Treg Ratio at Early HIV Infection Associate with Protective HIV-Specific CD8+ T-Cell Responses and Disease Progression
Researchers analyzed Th17 and Treg subsets and their correlation with anti-HIV T-cell responses and clinical parameters during primary HIV infection and up to one year post-infection. [Sci Rep] Full Article

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REVIEWS
The Emerging Role of Resident Memory T Cells in Protective Immunity and Inflammatory Disease
The authors discuss recent insights into the biology of tissue-resident memory T cells with a particular focus on their roles in disease, both proven and putative. [Nat Med] Full Article

Amplifying Renal Immunity: The Role of Antimicrobial Peptides in Pyelonephritis
Investigators describe the role of intercalated cells and the innate immune response in preventing urinary tract infections, specifically highlighting the role of antimicrobial peptides in maintaining urinary tract sterility. [Nat Rev Nephrol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
SLU’s Vaccine Center Awarded $2.9 Million to Study New TB Vaccine
Saint Louis University’s Center for Vaccine Development has received a $2.9 million award from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to study a new tuberculosis (TB) vaccine. [Saint Louis University] Press Release

Institute for Biomedical Sciences Researcher Gets $1.6 Million to Develop Anti-Inflammatory Drug
Dr. Jian-Dong Li, a professor and director of the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State University and a Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar in Inflammation and Immunity, has received a five-year, $1.6 million federal grant to develop novel anti-inflammatory therapeutics against middle-ear infections. [Georgia State University] Press Release

GeoVax Receives Grant from NIH for HIV Vaccine Program
GeoVax Labs, Inc. announced it has received a Notice of Award from the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) for a Small Business Innovative Research grant in support of its clade C HIV vaccine development program for Africa. [GeoVax Labs, Inc.] Press Release

XBiotech Treats First Patient in Phase I/II Clinical Study of Novel True Human™ Therapeutic Antibody for Treating Serious Infections Due to Staphylococcus aureus
XBiotech Inc. announced treatment of first patient in its Phase I/II clinical study. The study is designed to evaluate dosing, safety and efficacy of a novel antibody therapy intended to treat all forms of S. aureus infections, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus. [XBiotech Inc.] Press Release

Cempra Completes Patient Enrollment of Solitaire-IV Phase III Clinical Trial
Cempra, Inc. announced the completion of enrollment for the global Solitaire-IV Phase III trial of solithromycin in adult patients with moderate to moderately severe community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. [Cempra, Inc.] Press Release

STEMCELL Technologies Launches Innovative Products to Support CAR T Cell Research
STEMCELL Technologies Inc. announced the launch of ImmunoCult™ Human T Cell Activator reagents and ImmunoCult™-XF T Cell Expansion Medium to support T cell researchers in their goal to develop CAR T cell immunotherapeutics. The products provide significant benefits compared to existing technologies. [STEMCELL Technologies Inc.] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
Researchers Frustrated by Failure to Roll Out ‘Game-Changing’ Ebola Test
A test kit that diagnoses Ebola rapidly using just a finger prick of blood could save lives in the ongoing epidemic in West Africa. But researchers are perplexed as to why the diagnostic kit has not been deployed in the field, despite both the World Health Organization and the US Food and Drug Administration approving it four months ago for emergency use. [Nature News] Editorial

US Vaccine Researcher Sentenced to Prison for Fraud
Dong-Pyou Han, a former biomedical scientist at Iowa State University in Ames, was sentenced to 57 months for fabricating and falsifying data in HIV vaccine trials. Han has also been fined $7.2 million and will be subject to three years of supervised release after he leaves prison. [Nature News] Editorial

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 7th Trends in Medical Mycology
October 9-12, 2015
Lisbon, Portugal

NEW Immunogenicity and Bioassay Summit 2015
November 17-19, 2015
Baltimore, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Translational Immunology (University of Utah School of Medicine)

NEW PhD Studentship – Veterinary and Animal Sciences (University of Milan)

NEW Faculty Position – HIV Research (University of Pittsburgh)

Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientific Marketing Specialist – Immunology (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Principal Investigator (Infectious Disease Research Institute)

Faculty Positions – Immunology/Infectious Disease (The Wistar Institute)

Postdoctoral Scientist – HIV Immunology (Gilead Sciences)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Tolerance (Stanford University)

PhD Position – Microbial Immunology (Hans Knöll Institute)


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