Volume 3.23 | Jun 17

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.23 June 17, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Research on Gonorrhea Uncovers New Immune System Trigger
Researchers have uncovered how Gram-negative bacteria — a broad class of bugs that cause diseases ranging from gonorrhea to diarrhea and pneumonia — can trigger a reaction from our immune system. [Press release from the University of Toronto discussing online publication in Science] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Synergistic Action of Staphylococcus aureus α-Toxin on Platelets and Myeloid Lineage Cells Contributes to Lethal Sepsis
Scientists demonstrated that during lethal sepsis, S. aureus α-toxin simultaneously alters platelet activation and promotes neutrophil inflammatory signaling through interactions with its cellular receptor ADAM10. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

The Anopheles-Midgut APN1 Structure Reveals a New Malaria Transmission–Blocking Vaccine Epitope
The authors present the 2.65-Å crystal structure of alanyl aminopeptidase N (AnAPN1) and the immunoreactivity and transmission-blocking profiles of three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to AnAPN1, including mAb 4H5B7, which effectively blocks transmission of natural strains of Plasmodium falciparum. [Nat Struct Mol Biol] Abstract | Press Release

Dynamic Change in Natural Killer Cell Type in the Human Ocular Mucosa In Situ as Means of Immune Evasion by Adenovirus Infection
Researchers investigated the dynamics and mechanisms of changes in natural killer cell types in the human ocular mucosal surface in situ over the course of infection. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Suppression of Cell Division-Associated Genes by Helicobacter pylori Attenuates Proliferation of RAW264.7 Monocytic Macrophage Cells
The authors suggest that H. pylori disrupts expression of cell cycle-associated genes, thereby impeding proliferation of RAW264.7 cells, and such disruption may be an immunoevasive strategy utilized by H. pylori. [Sci Rep] Full Article

SOCS4 Is Dispensable for an Efficient Recall Response to Influenza despite Being Required for Primary Immunity
Researchers postulated that suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)4 is a critical regulator of anti-viral immunity. Unexpectedly, SOCS4 was not required for CD8+ T-cell memory generation, nor was it required to efficiently recall those cells in response to secondary influenza A virus infection. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

Structure-Based Redesign of Lysostaphin Yields Potent Antistaphylococcal Enzymes that Evade Immune Cell Surveillance
Investigators deimmunized lysostaphin using a computationally guided process that optimizes sets of mutations to delete immunogenic T cell epitopes without disrupting protein function. In vitro analyses showed the methods to be both efficient and effective, producing seven different deimmunized designs exhibiting high function and reduced immunogenic potential. [Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev] Full Article


High-Dose Vitamin D3 Reduces Deficiency Caused by Low UVB Exposure and Limits HIV-1 Replication in Urban Southern Africans
Vitamin D deficiency was observed in the majority of subjects in winter and in a proportion of individuals in summer, was highly correlated with UVB exposure, and was associated with greater HIV-1 replication in peripheral blood cells. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

Potent Cell-Intrinsic Immune Responses in Dendritic Cells Facilitate HIV-1-Specific T Cell Immunity in HIV-1 Elite Controllers
Scientists showed that exposure of conventional dendritic cells from elite controllers to HIV-1 leads to a rapid and sustained production of type I interferons and upregulation of several interferon-stimulated effector genes. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Press Release

HIV Latency Is Established Directly and Early in Both Resting and Activated Primary CD4 T Cells
Researchers used a dual reporter virus—HIV Duo-Fluo I, which identifies latently infected cells immediately after infection—to investigate how T cell activation affects the establishment of HIV latency. They showed that HIV latency can arise from the direct infection of both resting and activated CD4+ T cells. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

HIV-Infected Sex Workers with Beneficial HLA-Variants Are Potential Hubs for Selection of HIV-1 Recombinants that May Affect Disease Progression
Investigators determined whether patients with HLA variants associated with effective cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses (beneficial HLA variants) were more likely to carry unique intra-patient HIV-recombinants (URFs) and, if so, examined whether they progressed more rapidly than patients with beneficial HLA-variants who did not carry URFs. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Transient Global T Cell Activation after Vaccination of Rhesus Macaques with a DNA-Poxvirus Vaccine Regimen for HIV
Scientists investigated the magnitude and kinetics of T cell activation following vaccination of rhesus macaques with a candidate HIV vaccine consisting of a recombinant DNA and MVA vaccination regimen. [Vaccine] Abstract

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Bottlenecks in HIV-1 Transmission: Insights from the Study of Founder Viruses
The authors highlight how studies of transmitted/founder viruses contribute to a better understanding of the biology of HIV-1 transmission and discuss how these findings affect HIV-1 prevention strategies. [Nat Rev Microbiol] Abstract

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GARDASIL®9: New HPV Vaccine Approved in the European Union
Sanofi Pasteur MSD announced that the European Commission has granted marketing authorization for GARDASIL 9. GARDASIL 9 is a 9-valent HPV vaccine for active immunization of females and males from the age of nine years against premalignant lesions and cancers affecting the cervix, vulva, vagina or anus and also against genital warts caused by the HPV types covered by the vaccine. [Sanofi Pasteur MSD] Press Release

CHOP’s Dr. Steven Douglas Honored as Paradigm Builder in HIV-Immunology Research
Steven D. Douglas, M.D., chief of the Section of Immunology at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, was recognized for 40 years of seminal and continuous work in the biology of immune cells, with particular relevance to potential treatment for HIV infection. [Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia] Press Release

RedHill Biopharma Successfully Meets Primary Endpoint in Phase III Study of RHB-105 for H. pylori Infection
RedHill Biopharma Ltd. announced positive top-line results from its Phase III study with RHB-105 for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori bacterial infection. Top-line results from the study demonstrated 89.4% efficacy in eradicating H. pylori infection with RHB-105. [RedHill Biopharma Ltd.] Press Release

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NEW 15th European AIDS Conference (EACS) 2015
October 21-24, 2015
Barcelona, Spain

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NEW Postdoctoral Position – Human Immune System-Microbiota Crosstalk (Karolinska Institutet)

NEW Senior Scientist – Immunology Research (Bavarian Nordic GmbH)

Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientific Marketing Specialist – Immunology (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Scientist – HIV Immunology (Gilead Sciences)

PhD Position – Molecular Immunology (VIB – Ghent University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Tolerance (Stanford University)

PhD Position – Microbial Immunology (Hans Knöll Institute)

Principal Investigator – Virology and Immunology (Chinese Academy of Sciences)

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