Volume 3.22 | Jun 10

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.22 June 10, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Research Offers a New Approach to Improving HIV Vaccines
Researchers showed how a protein called polyglutamine-binding protein 1 (PQBP1) acts as a front-line sensor and is critical to initiating an immune response to HIV. When the PQBP1 encounters the virus, it starts a program that triggers an overall protective environment against infection and enhances the production of virus-specific antibodies. [Press release from Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute discussing online publication in Cell] Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Bone-Marrow-Resident NK Cells Prime Monocytes for Regulatory Function during Infection
Scientists showed that during acute gastrointestinal infection, priming of monocytes for regulatory function preceded systemic inflammation and was initiated prior to bone marrow egress. Notably, natural killer (NK) cell-derived IFN-γ promoted a regulatory program in monocyte progenitors during development. [Immunity]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

A Sand Fly Salivary Protein Vaccine Shows Efficacy against Vector-Transmitted Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Nonhuman Primates
Investigators demonstrated that nonhuman primates exposed to Phlebotomus duboscqi uninfected sand fly bites or immunized with salivary protein PdSP15 are protected against cutaneous leishmaniasis initiated by infected bites. Protection correlated to the early appearance of Leishmania-specific CD4+IFN-γ+ lymphocytes, suggesting that immunity to saliva or PdSP15 augments the host immune response to the parasites while maintaining minimal pathology. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract

Genetic Absence of PD-1 Promotes Accumulation of Terminally Differentiated Exhausted CD8+ T Cells
The authors showed that programmed death-1 (PD-1) is not required for the induction of exhaustion in mice with chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. In fact, some aspects of exhaustion are more severe with genetic deletion of PD-1 from the onset of infection. [J Exp Med] Abstract | Press Release

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Differentially Activates cGAS- and Inflammasome-Dependent Intracellular Immune Responses through ESX-1
Researchers demonstrate that the cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is essential for initiating an interferon response to M. tuberculosis infection. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

IL-1R Signaling Enables Bystander Cells to Overcome Bacterial Blockade of Host Protein Synthesis
Researchers used the bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila to understand how the immune system successfully overcomes pathogen subversion mechanisms. L. pneumophila replicates within macrophages by using a type IV secretion system to translocate bacterial effectors into the host cell cytosol. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Genetically Engineered Ascorbic Acid-Deficient Live Mutants of Leishmania donovani Induce Long Lasting Protective Immunity against Visceral Leishmaniasis
Protection in immunized mice after challenge correlated with the stimulation of IFN-γ producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Antigen-mediated cell immunity correlated with robust nitrite and superoxide generation, macrophage-derived oxidants critical in controlling Leishmania infection. [Sci Rep] Full Article

A Mycobacterium tuberculosis Dormancy Antigen Differentiates Latently Infected Bacillus Calmette–Guérin-Vaccinated Individuals
Since improved tests to diagnose M. tuberculosis infection are required, investigators assessed the efficacy of several M. tuberculosis latency antigens. IFN-γ production against CFP-10, ESAT-6, Rv2624c, Rv2626c and Rv2628 antigens was tested in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. [EBioMedicine] Full Article


Maternal HIV-1 Envelope–Specific Antibody Responses and Reduced Risk of Perinatal Transmission
Investigators defined humoral immune correlates of risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, including responses associated with protection in the RV144 vaccine trial. [J Clin Invest] Full Article | Press Release

TOE1 Is an Inhibitor of HIV-1 Replication with Cell-Penetrating Capability
Researchers report that Target of Egr1 (TOE1) can function as an inhibitor of HIV-1 replication and show evidence that supports a direct interaction of TOE1 with the viral specific transactivator response element as part of the inhibitory mechanism. They showed that TOE1 can be secreted by activated CD8+ T lymphocytes and can be cleaved by the serine protease granzyme B. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Pathogen-Specific T Cell Polyfunctionality Is a Correlate of T Cell Efficacy and Immune Protection
Scientists demonstrated that quantitative assessment of T cell polyfunctionality correlates with T cell efficacy measured as the capacity to kill target cells in vitro and control infection in vivo. [PLoS One] Full Article

High Immune Activation and Abnormal Expression of Cytokines Contribute to Death of SHIV89.6-Infected Chinese Rhesus Macaques
Researchers found especially high immune activation, low IFN-α expression, and distinctive cytokine expression profiles in the infected and dead (ID) group of monkeys, while there was only few change in the CD4+ T counts and distribution of T cell subsets in the ID group monkeys. [Arch Virol] Abstract

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New Approaches to HIV Vaccine Development
Recent success in isolation of potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs), in discovery of mechanisms of bnAb induction, and in discovery of atypical mechanisms of CD8T cell killing of HIV-infected cells, have opened new avenues for strategies for HIV vaccine design. [Curr Opin Immunol] Abstract

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Invitation to Attend SMi 2nd Annual Immunogenicity Conference 2015
RedHill Biopharma Completes Treatment of Last Patient with RHB-105 in Phase III Study
RedHill Biopharma Ltd. announced that the last patient enrolled in the first Phase III study with RHB-105 for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori bacterial infection has completed the treatment course with the investigational product, RHB-105, for primary endpoint evaluation. [RedHill Biopharma Ltd.] Press Release

STEMCELL Technologies Named Company of the Year by BIOTECanada
STEMCELL Technologies Inc. will be presented with the Biotech Company of the Year award by BIOTECanada at this year’s BIO International Convention in Philadelphia. [STEMCELL Technologies Inc. (Business Wire)] Press Release

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NEW World STI & HIV Congress 2015
September 13-16, 2015
Brisbane, Australia

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NEW Scientific Marketing Specialist – Immunology (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

NEW Postdoctoral Scientist – HIV Immunology (Gilead Sciences)

Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

PhD Position – Molecular Immunology (VIB – Ghent University)

Principal Investigator – Immunity and Infection (University of Cambridge)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Tolerance (Stanford University)

PhD Position – Microbial Immunology (Hans Knöll Institute)

Faculty Positions – Microbial Systems Biology for Infectious Diseases (Ohio State University)

Principal Investigator – Virology and Immunology (Chinese Academy of Sciences)

Postdoctoral Fellow – HIV T Cell Immunology and Vaccine Development (University of Texas at El Paso)

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