Volume 3.21 | Jun 3

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.21 June 3, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
HIV Vaccine: Could a Few Special Cells Help Protect Millions of People?
Researchers devised a unique, computational method to detect a tiny fraction of T cells in HIV-vaccine recipients—cells dubbed “polyfunctional T cells” for their ability to produce several different immune molecules. These polyfunctional T cells were linked to a lower risk of infection. [Press release from Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center discussing online prepublication in Nature Biotechnology]
Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase Is an Innate Immune DNA Sensor for Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Investigators showed that M. tuberculosis activated cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP) synthase in macrophages to produce cGAMP, a second messenger that activates the adaptor protein stimulator of interferon genes to induce type I interferons and other cytokines. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Ly6C Monocytes Regulate Parasite-Induced Liver Inflammation by Inducing the Differentiation of Pathogenic Ly6C+ Monocytes into Macrophages
Scientists previously reported that in C57BL/6 mice, IL-10, produced among others by myeloid cells, limits the liver damage caused by pathogenic TNF-producing Ly6C+ monocytes, ensuring prolonged survival. Here, the heterogeneity and dynamics of liver myeloid cells in Trypanosoma congolense-infected C57BL/6 mice was further dissected. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Paradoxical Immune Responses in Non-HIV Cryptococcal Meningitis
Researchers studied non-HIV-infected patients including those with severe central nervous system disease to identify mechanisms of susceptibility as well as understand mechanisms underlying severe disease. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Induction of Inhibitory Receptors on T Cells during Plasmodium vivax Malaria Impairs Cytokine Production
Experimental models of malaria have shown that the regulatory molecules, cytotoxic T lymphocyte attenuator, lymphocyte activation gene-3 and programmed death-1 are involved in the functional impairment of T-cells during infection. Investigators defined the role of these molecules during P. vivax malaria. [J Infect Dis] Abstract

CD47 Promotes Protective Innate and Adaptive Immunity in a Mouse Model of Disseminated Candidiasis
cd47-/- mice on a C57BL/6 background showed significantly increased morbidity and mortality following Candida albicans infection when compared with wild-type mice. Neutrophil and macrophage numbers were significantly elevated in kidneys and neutrophils in the brains of infected cd47-/-. [PLoS One] Full Article

HIV

A Tyrosine-Based Motif in the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Tail Mediates Cell-Type– and Rab11-FIP1C–Dependent Incorporation into Virions
Researchers used viruses bearing targeted substitutions within cytoplasmic tails (CTs) to map the FIP1C-dependent incorporation of envelope glycoproteins (Env). They identified YW795 as a critical motif mediating cell-type–dependent Env incorporation. Disruption of YW795 reproduced the cell-type–dependent particle incorporation of Env that had previously been observed with large truncations of CT. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

Phospholipase D1 Couples CD4+ T Cell Activation to c-Myc-Dependent Deoxyribonucleotide Pool Expansion and HIV-1 Replication
Scientists showed that phospholipase D1 (PLD1) links T cell activation signals to increased HIV-1 permissivity by triggering a c-Myc-dependent transcriptional program that coordinates glucose uptake and nucleotide biosynthesis. Decreasing PLD1 activity pharmacologically or by RNA interference diminished c-Myc-dependent expression during T cell activation at the RNA and protein levels. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Press Release

Endotoxin-Minimized HIV-1 p24 Fused to Murine hsp70 Activates Dendritic Cells, Facilitates Endocytosis and p24-Specific Th1 Response in Mice
A p24 protein fused to the C- or N-terminus of murine heat shock protein hsp70 was produced as a recombinant protein and administered without any adjuvant to experimental BALB/c mice. Consequently, p24-specific cellular and humoral immune responses were measured. [Immunol Lett] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Molecular Mechanisms of Ebola Virus Pathogenesis: Focus on Cell Death
The authors analyze the molecular mechanisms at the basis of Ebola pathogenesis with a particular focus on the cell death pathways induced by the virus. They also discuss how the treatment of the infection can benefit from the recent experience of blocking/modulating cell death in human degenerative diseases. [Cell Death Differ] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
LDC and Qurient Close License Agreement on Novel Anti-Cancer Compound
The Lead Discovery Center GmbH (LDC) and Qurient Co., Ltd. have signed a license deal providing Qurient with exclusive worldwide rights to a series of highly-selective CDK7 inhibitors discovered at the LDC for the treatment of cancer, inflammation and viral infections. [Lead Discovery Center GmbH] Press Release

Mobidiag Announces CE Marking of Novel Helicobacter pylori and Clarithromycin Resistance Test
Mobidiag Ltd. announced the CE-IVD marking of Amplidiag™ H. pylori+ClariR. The qualitative qPCR-based test expands the gastrointestinal Amplidiag test menu and is immediately available throughout Europe. [Mobidiag Ltd.] Press Release

Antibiotic Approved for Treating Infant Abdominal Infections
The antibiotic meropenem was approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration for treating abdominal infections in children less than three months of age. The approval came after a study by a National Institutes of Health research network evaluated the drug in treating children in this age group. [National Institutes of Health] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
FDA Addresses Concerns on Approval of Drugs to Treat Chronic Hepatitis C
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)’s Division of Antiviral Products in the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research has published a paper that highlights the agency’s scientific approaches and regulatory processes that support the development and approval of promising drugs to treat hepatitis C. [J Hepatol] Press Release | Abstract

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Immuno-Oncology
September 30-October 1, 2015
Alexandria, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW PhD Position – Molecular Immunology (VIB – Ghent University)

Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Principal Investigator – Immunity and Infection (University of Cambridge)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Tolerance (Stanford University)

PhD Position – Microbial Immunology (Hans Knöll Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Parasite Glycobiology and Anti-Parasitic Strategies (Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland)

Faculty Positions – Microbial Systems Biology for Infectious Diseases (Ohio State University)

Principal Investigator – Virology and Immunology (Chinese Academy of Sciences)

Postdoctoral Fellow – HIV T Cell Immunology and Vaccine Development (University of Texas at El Paso)


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