Volume 3.20 | May 27

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.20 May 27, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Structural Repertoire of HIV-1-Neutralizing Antibodies Targeting the CD4 Supersite in 14 Donors
To understand how antibodies achieve neutralization, scientists isolated CD4-binding-site (CD4bs) antibodies and analyzed 16 co-crystal structures of CD4bs antibodies from 14 donors. [Cell]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Interferon-λ and Interleukin 22 Act Synergistically for the Induction of Interferon-Stimulated Genes and Control of Rotavirus Infection
Researchers identified interleukin 22 produced by innate lymphoid cell group 3 as an amplifier of signaling via interferon-λ, a synergism needed to curtail the replication of rotavirus, the leading cause of childhood gastroenteritis. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Gammaherpesvirus Co-Infection with Malaria Suppresses Anti-Parasitic Humoral Immunity
Using well established mouse models of infection, researchers showed that acute, but not latent murine gammaherpesvirus 68 infection suppresses the anti-malarial humoral response to a secondary malaria infection. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Press Release

Eosinophils Contribute to Early Clearance of Pneumocystis murina Infection
Given the crucial role of CD4+ T cells in host defense against Pneumocystis, investigators used RNA sequencing of whole lung early in infection in wild-type and CD4-depleted animals as an unbiased approach to examine mechanisms of fungal clearance. In wild-type mice, a strong eosinophil signature was observed at day 14 post Pneumocystis challenge, and eosinophils were increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of wild-type mice. [J Immunol] Abstract

TLR Ligand Induced IL-6 Counter-Regulates the Anti-Viral CD8+ T Cell Response during an Acute Retrovirus Infection
Scientists investigated the role of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced interleukin 6 (IL-6) in shaping virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in the Friend retrovirus mouse model. They showed that the TLR agonist induced IL-6 counter-regulates effector CD8+ T-cell responses. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Innate Lymphotoxin Receptor Mediated Signaling Promotes HSV-1 Associated Neuroinflammation and Viral Replication
Using a model of footpad herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection in Rag1–/– mice, investigators observed that blocking lymphotoxin-α1β2 (LT)/LIGHT signaling with LT beta receptor-Ig could significantly delay disease progression and extend the survival of infected mice. [Sci Rep] Full Article

NK Cells Inhibit Humoral Immunity by Reducing the Abundance of CD4+ T Follicular Helper Cells during a Chronic Virus Infection
Researchers examined the effect of NK cell depletion on B cell responses to LCMV infection in mice. They found that early NK cell depletion rapidly increased virus-specific antibody levels to chronic infection, and this effect depended on CD4+ T cells and was associated with elevated numbers of CXCR5+CD4+ TFH cells. [J Leukoc Biol] Abstract

The Expression of Molecule CD28 and CD38 on CD4+/CD8+ T Lymphocytes in Thymus and Spleen Elicited by Schistosoma japonicum Infection in Mice Model
Researchers investigated the dynamic patterns of the expression of molecules CD28 and CD38 on CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes of the thymus and spleen in mice model with S. japonicum infection. Their data indicated that at an early period of infection, the frequency of CD8+CD28 T cell in the spleen decreased significantly, but higher at chronic infection than that in control. [Parasitol Res] Abstract


The Expression of Functional Vpx during Pathogenic SIVmac Infections of Rhesus Macaques Suppresses SAMHD1 in CD4+ Memory T Cells
Scientists showed that when macaques were inoculated with either the T cell tropic SIVmac239 or the macrophage tropic SIVmac316 carrying a Vpx point mutation that abrogates the recruitment of DCAF1 and the ensuing degradation of endogenous sterile alpha motif and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) in cultured CD+ T cells, virus acquisition, progeny virion production in memory CD4+ T cells during acute infection, and the maintenance of set-point viremia were greatly attenuated. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Activated Platelet-T Cell Conjugates in Peripheral Blood of Patients with HIV Infection: Coupling Coagulation/Inflammation and T Cells
Healthy controls and combination antiretroviral therapy treated HIV infected patients with viral loads of less than 40 copies/ml for more than 15 months were analysed for platelet-T cell conjugate formation. [AIDS] Abstract

Prolonged Antiretroviral Therapy Preserves HIV-1-Specific CD8 T Cells with Stem Cell-Like Properties
Investigators showed that a subgroup of HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells with stem cell-like properties is enriched in patients receiving suppressive antiretroviral therapy, as opposed to untreated progressors or controllers. In addition, prolonged duration of antiretroviral therapy was associated with a progressive increase in the relative proportions of these stem cell-like HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells. [J Virol] Abstract

Elimination of HIV-1-Infected Primary T Cell Reservoirs in an In Vitro Model of Latency
The authors utilized a human primary cell model of HIV-1 latency to evaluate the requirements for efficient virus reactivation from, and the selective elimination of, latently infected human T cells. [PLoS One] Full Article

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Success and Failure of the Cellular Immune Response against HIV-1
The authors focus on the mechanisms that are most likely responsible for durable and potent immunologic control of HIV-1. Although we now have a detailed picture of the cellular immune responses to HIV-1, important questions remain regarding the nature of these responses and how they arise. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Antibody Responses to Envelope Glycoproteins in HIV-1 Infection
The past few years have seen the isolation of many broadly neutralizing antibodies of remarkable potency that have shown prophylactic and therapeutic activities in animal models. These antibodies are helping to guide rational vaccine design and therapeutic strategies for HIV-1. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

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GlobeImmune Announces Top Line Results From GS-4774 Phase II Trial in Virally-Suppressed Chronic HBV Patients
GlobeImmune, Inc. announced top line results from the GS-4774 Phase II study in patients with chronic hepatitis B on long term viral suppression with an oral antiviral treatment. [GlobeImmune, Inc.] Press Release

Starting Antiretroviral Treatment Early Improves Outcomes for HIV-Infected Individuals
A major international randomized clinical trial has found that HIV-infected individuals have a considerably lower risk of developing AIDS or other serious illnesses if they start taking antiretroviral drugs sooner, when their CD4+ T-cell count—a key measure of immune system health—is higher, instead of waiting until the CD4+ cell count drops to lower levels. [National Institutes of Health] Press Release

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Takeda Announces Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Sales Agreement with Kaketsuken in Japan
Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited announced that it has entered into an agreement with the Chemo-Sero-Therapeutic Research Institute (Kaketsuken) for distribution of Kaketsuken’s seasonal influenza vaccine in Japan. [Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited] Press Release

Inovio Pharmaceuticals Partners with GeneOne Life Science for MERS Immunotherapy Clinical Development
Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced it will advance its DNA vaccine for MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome) into a Phase I clinical trial in healthy volunteers in a collaboration with GeneOne Life Science Inc. [Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 22nd International Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus and Related Viruses (HCV2015)
October 9-13, 2015
Strasbourg, France

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NEW Principle Investigator – Immunity and Infection (University of Cambridge)

Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Tolerance (Stanford University)

PhD Position – Microbial Immunology (Hans Knöll Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Parasite Glycobiology and Anti-Parasitic Strategies (Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland)

Faculty Positions – Microbial Systems Biology for Infectious Diseases (Ohio State University)

Principle Investigator – Virology and Immunology (Chinese Academy of Sciences)

Postdoctoral Fellow – HIV T Cell Immunology and Vaccine Development (University of Texas at El Paso)

Postdoctoral Fellow – HIV Resistant Macrophages (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

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