Volume 3.17 | May 6

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.17 May 6, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Researchers “Un-Can” the HIV Virus
If the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a bit like a hermetically sealed tin can no one has yet been able to break open, the good news is that researchers have identified a way to use a “can opener” to force the virus to open up and to expose its vulnerable parts, allowing the immune system cells to then kill the infected cells. [Press release from the University of Montréal discussing online prepublication in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Prime-Boost Vaccination with Chimpanzee Adenovirus and Modified Vaccinia Ankara Encoding TRAP Provides Partial Protection against Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Kenyan Adults
Protective immunity to the liver stage of the malaria parasite can be conferred by vaccine-induced T cells, but no subunit vaccination approach based on cellular immunity has shown efficacy in field studies. Investigators randomly allocated 121 healthy adult male volunteers in Kilifi, Kenya, to vaccination with the recombinant viral vectors chimpanzee adenovirus 63 and modified vaccinia Ankara. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract

Humoral Immunity in the Gut Selectively Targets Phenotypically Virulent Attaching-and-Effacing Bacteria for Intraluminal Elimination
Scientists showed that specific antibody responses were required for downregulation of virulence gene expression in Citrobacter rodentium, an enteric pathogen that models human infections with attaching-and-effacing bacteria. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Reduced Erythrocyte Susceptibility and Increased Host Clearance of Young Parasites Slows Plasmodium Growth in a Murine Model of Severe Malaria
P. falciparum-infected humans could control parasite loads by two mechanisms, either decreasing parasite multiplication, or increasing parasite clearance. Investigators directly quantified host clearance of parasites during Plasmodium infection in mice. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Preclinical Safety and Tolerability of a Repeatedly Administered Human Leishmaniasis DNA Vaccine
LEISHDNAVAX is a multi-antigen, T-cell epitope-enriched DNA vaccine candidate against human leishmaniasis. The authors describe the safety testing of LEISHDNAVAX in naive mice and rats, complemented by the demonstration of tolerability in Leishmania-infected mice. [Gene Ther] Full Article

Dengue Virus Requires the CC-Chemokine Receptor CCR5 for Replication and Infection Development
Investigators describe the role of CC-chemokine receptor CCR5 in Dengue virus (DENV-2) infection. In vitro experiments showed CCR5 is a host factor required for DENV-2 replication in human and mouse macrophages. [Immunology] Abstract

HIV

Rab27a Controls HIV-1 Assembly by Regulating Plasma Membrane Levels of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate
Scientists showed that Rab27a controls the trafficking of late endosomes carrying phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type 2 α toward the plasma membrane of CD4+ T cells. [J Cell Biol] Abstract | Editorial | Press Release

Chemokine-Adjuvanted Electroporated DNA Vaccine Induces Substantial Protection from Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Vaginal Challenge
Researchers used a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) DNA vaccine adjuvanted with plasmid-expressed mucosal chemokines combined with an intravaginal SIV challenge in rhesus macaque model. Sixty-eight percent of all vaccinated animals remained either uninfected or had aborted infection compared with only 14% in the vaccine naïve group. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Discovery and Characterization of an Endogenous CXCR4 Antagonist
To discover as-yet-unknown endogenous ligands of CXCR4, investigators screened a blood-derived peptide library for inhibitors of CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 strains. The endogenous peptide, termed EPI-X4, formed an unusual lasso-like structure and antagonized CXCL12-induced tumor cell migration, mobilized stem cells, and suppressed inflammatory responses in mice. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Differential Immune Mechanism to HIV-1 Tat Variants and Its Regulation by AEA
Scientists showed that HIV-1 clades Tat B and C act differentially on Müller glia, which is reflected in apoptosis, activation of cell death pathway components and pro-inflammatory cytokines. [Sci Rep] Full Article

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REVIEWS
The Role of C5a in Acute Lung Injury Induced by Highly Pathogenic Viral Infections
The authors review the literature that links C5a and acute lung injury (ALI), and review the understanding of the mechanisms by which C5a affects ALI during highly pathogenic viral infection. In particular, they discuss the potential of the blockade of C5a signaling to treat ALI induced by highly pathogenic viruses. [Emerg Microbes Infect] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Chickenpox Virus Can Cause Stroke in HIV Patients
A case study demonstrates that a virus called varicella-zoster can cause inflammation of blood vessels in the brain. This inflammation, known as cerebral vasculitis, can cause both hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic strokes. [Press release from Loyola University Medical Center discussing research presented at the 2015 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C.] Press Release

Soligenix Announces Presentation and Poster
Soligenix, Inc. announced that it will be presenting preclinical data from three of its biodefense programs. [Press release from Soligenix, Inc. discussing research to be presented at the 2015 Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology (CBD S&T) Conference, St. Louis] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Penn Medicine Researchers Receive $7.5 Million to Expand HIV Gene Therapy Work
Researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine and the Penn Center for AIDS Research have been awarded $7.5 million over five years from the National Institutes of Health to initiate a multi-project HIV study investigating a new gene therapy approach to render immune cells of HIV positive patients resistant to the virus. [Penn Medicine] Press Release

Texas Biomed Scientist Receives Nearly $3.4 Million NIH Grant to Study Papillomavirus-Based AIDS Vaccine for Dual Protection against HIV and HPV-Induced Cancer
Scientists at Texas Biomedical Research Institute have begun work on a study funded by the National Institutes of Health over the next four years to create an attenuated, or weakened, virus that is a hybrid of the papilloma virus and the human immunodeficiency virus, with the potential to jumpstart a body’s immune response to develop antibodies against both viruses. [Texas Biomedical Research Institute] Press Release

New Company to Develop Vaccines, Discovered by City of Hope Researchers, to Protect against CMV Infections in Cancer Patients
City of Hope and Fortress Biotech have reached an agreement to form a new subsidiary company, DiaVax Biosciences, that will develop two novel vaccines against cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, a life-threatening illness in people with weakened or underdeveloped immune systems, such as cancer patients and developing fetuses. [City of Hope] Press Release

ViiV Healthcare Begins Phase III Program with Dolutegravir/Rilpivirine Combination for HIV Maintenance Therapy
ViiV Healthcare announced the start of a Phase III clinical trial program to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dolutegravir and rilpivirine as maintenance therapy for adult patients with HIV. [ViiV Healthcare] Press Release

Immune Therapeutics Inc. Announces the Official Publication Announcement of the NAFDAC Approved 90-Day Bridging Trial of Lodonal™ with HIV/AIDS Patients
Immune Therapeutics Inc. announced the dosing of the first patient with Lodonal™ for the 90-day bridging clinical trial of Immune Therapeutics’ proprietary patented therapy as an adjunct treatment for HIV/AIDS and opportunistic infections. [Immune Therapeutics Inc. (PR Newswire Association LLC)] Press Release

Human Clinical Trials Begin for Deadly Hendra Virus Therapy
The world’s first human clinical trials for a treatment against Hendra virus, a rare but deadly viral disease, have just begun in Australia, using a human monoclonal antibody discovered by federal scientists at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences and the National Cancer Institute. [Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (Newswise, Inc.)] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 7th South African AIDS Conference 2015
June 9-12, 2015
Durban, South Africa

NEW Gordon Research Conference: Apoptotic Cell Recognition and Clearance
June 14-19, 2015
Biddeford, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

NEW Faculty Positions – Microbial Systems Biology for Infectious Diseases (Ohio State University)

NEW Lecturer – Systems Immunity (Cardiff University)

NEW Principle Investigator – Virology and Immunology (Chinese Academy of Sciences)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Senior Scientist – Respiratory Infectious Immunology (Janssen)

Postdoctoral Fellow – HIV T Cell Immunology and Vaccine Development (University of Texas at El Paso)

Postdoctoral Fellow – HIV Resistant Macrophages (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Immuno-Metabolism (East Carolina University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Innate Immunity (University of Connecticut Health Center)


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