Volume 3.16 | Apr 29

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.16 April 29, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Researchers Develop Ebola Treatment Effective Three Days after Infection
Researchers have successfully developed a post-exposure treatment that is effective against a specific strain of the Ebola virus that killed thousands of people in West Africa. [Press release from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston discussing online prepublication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
ICOS and Bcl6-Dependent Pathways Maintain a CD4 T Cell Population with Memory-Like Properties during Tuberculosis
Using MHCII tetramers, scientists showed that Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4 T cells were subject to ongoing antigenic stimulation. Despite this chronic stimulation, a subset of PD-1+ cells was maintained within the lung parenchyma during tuberculosis. [J Exp Med] Abstract

ILC2s and T Cells Cooperate to Ensure Maintenance of M2 Macrophages for Lung Immunity against Hookworms
Investigators report that lung CD4+ T cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) work in concert to block Nippostrongylus brasiliensis development in the parenchyma within 48 hours in mice. [Nat Commun]
Abstract | Press Release

Activation of NLRC4 Downregulates TLR5-Mediated Antibody Immune Responses against Flagellin
Scientists assessed the effects of flagellin and its mutants lacking the ability to activate Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) and NOD-like receptor protein 4 (NLRC4) alone or in combination on the adaptive immune responses against flagellin. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

ESAT-6 Targeting to DEC205+ Antigen Presenting Cells Induces Specific-T Cell Responses against ESAT-6 and Reduces Pulmonary Infection with Virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Researchers generated a murine monoclonal fusion antibody to deliver early secretory antigen target (ESAT)-6 directly to DEC205+ antigen presenting cells and assessed its in vivo effects on protection associated responses. [PLoS One] Full Article

Adoptive Transfer of CD4+Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells to C57BL/6J Mice during Acute Infection with Toxoplasma gondii down Modulates the Exacerbated Th1 Immune Response
Investigators studied the role of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells during T. gondii infection by adoptive transfer of cells purified from transgenic Foxp3EGFP mice to infected wild type animals. [Microbes Infect] Full Article


Gut Dendritic Cell Activation Links an Altered Colonic Microbiome to Mucosal and Systemic T-Cell Activation in Untreated HIV-1 Infection
Researchers compared the frequency and activation/maturation status of colonic myeloid dendritic cell (DC) subsets (CD1c+ and CD1cneg) and plasmacytoid DCs in untreated HIV-1-infected subjects with uninfected controls. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Neutralization Properties of Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses Infecting Chimpanzees and Gorillas
Investigators examined whether human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies are capable of cross-neutralizing distantly related simian immunodeficiency viruses infecting central and eastern chimpanzees as well as western gorillas. [MBio] Full Article

Involvement of a C-Terminal Motif in the Interference of Primate Lentiviral Vpu Proteins with CD1d-Mediated Antigen Presentation
Scientists have previously shown that the Vpu proteins of two HIV-1 group M subtype B strains down-regulate CD1d from the surface of infected dendritic cells and inhibit their crosstalk with the innate invariant natural killer T cells. In the present study, they investigated the ability of a comprehensive set of primate lentiviral Vpu proteins to interfere with CD1d-mediated immunity. [Sci Rep] Full Article

HIV-1 Tat Immunization Restores Immune Homeostasis and Attacks the HAART-Resistant Blood HIV DNA: Results of a Randomized Phase II Exploratory Clinical Trial
The Phase II multicenter, randomized, open label, therapeutic trial evaluated the immunogenicity and the safety of the biologically active HIV-1 Tat protein. Vaccination promoted a durable and significant restoration of T, B, natural killer cells, and CD4+ and CD8+ central memory subsets. [Retrovirology]
Full Article | Press Release

Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Infection and Sensing Capacity during Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic SIV Infection
The authors report that African green monkeys (AGM) plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) express extremely low levels of CD4, unlike macaque and human pDC. Despite this, AGM pDC efficiently sensed SIVagm, but not heterologous HIV/SIV isolates, indicating a virus-host adaptation. [J Virol] Abstract

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HIV-1 and Interferons: Who’s Interfering with Whom?
The authors discuss the evidence that interferons (IFNs) can control HIV-1 replication in vivo and debate the controversial role of IFNs in promoting the pathological sequelae of chronic HIV-1 infection. [Nat Rev Microbiol] Abstract

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection of the ‘Non-Classical Immune Cell’
Investigators address the influence of specific ‘non-classical immune cells’ in host responses and their effects in controlling mycobacterial growth or enabling an environment conducive for bacilli persistence. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

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Positive Phase III Results for Two Antibiotics, Zinforo™ and Investigational Ceftazidime-Avibactam
AstraZeneca presented positive Phase III data demonstrating the efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam, an investigational antibiotic being developed to treat serious Gram-negative bacterial infections including complicated intra-abdominal infections. [Press release from AstraZeneca (PR Newswire Association LLC) discussing research presented at the 25th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID), Copenhagen] Press Release

Sofosbuvir/Daclatasvir Combination Effective Treatment for Difficult-to-Treat Hep C Patients
Results show that the sofosbuvir/daclatasvir treatment combination is effective amongst hepatitis C virus genotype-1 mono-infected patients. [Press release from the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EurekAlert!) discussing research presented at the 50th International Liver Congress™ (ILC) 2015, Vienna] Press Release

Researchers Highlight Need for Better Evidence to Guide EU Efforts to Increase Hep B+C Testing
The apparent dearth of research on hepatitis B and C testing in many European countries could be hampering efforts to identify infected individuals, according to results from a comprehensive review of 136 studies. [Press release from the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EurekAlert!) discussing research presented at the 50th International Liver Congress™ (ILC) 2015, Vienna] Press Release

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NIH Awards SLU Contract to Study Universal Flu Vaccine
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, which is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), selected Saint Louis University (SLU) to work on the flu vaccine project, which has a total funding of $1.1 million. [Saint Louis University] Press Release

PAML and Axela Collaborate on Immune Status for Vaccine Preventable Diseases
Pathology Associates Medical Laboratories (PAML) announced that the laboratory has entered into a collaborative agreement with Axela, Inc. to develop multiplex assays focused on immune status for vaccine preventable diseases. [PAML, LLC] Press Release

Microneedle Patch for Measles Vaccination Could Be a Global Game Changer
A new microneedle patch being developed by the Georgia Institute of Technology and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention could make it easier to vaccinate people against measles and other vaccine-preventable diseases. [Georgia Institute of Technology] Press Release | Video

Vical to Manufacture HIV Vaccines for Clinical Evaluation by Public-Private Partnership Initiative
Vical Incorporated announced that it has entered into a $4 million contract with the IPPOX Foundation to manufacture HIV-antigen plasmid DNA as a component of vaccine regimens to be evaluated in clinical trials for the prevention of HIV infection. [Vical Incorporated] Press Release

Seattle BioMed Rebrands as Center for Infectious Disease Research
Seattle BioMed announced the organization has rebranded as the Center for Infectious Disease Research. The Center for Infectious Disease Research focuses on making transformative scientific advancements in the development of vaccines, drugs and diagnostics to treat and prevent HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and other emerging and neglected diseases. [Center for Infectious Disease Research (Business Wire)] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Targeting Cell Death Mechanisms for the Treatment of Human Diseases
November 9-13, 2015
Suzhou, China

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NEW Senior Scientist – Respiratory Infectious Immunology (Janssen)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – HIV T Cell Immunology and Vaccine Development (University of Texas at El Paso)

Postdoctoral Fellow – HIV Resistant Macrophages (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology/Virology (Inserm)

Early Stage Researcher – Identification and Characterization of Hepatitis B Virus Inhibitors (AiCuris GmbH)

Postdoctoral Position – Immuno-Metabolism (East Carolina University)

Postdoctoral Position – Immune Responses and Virus Biology (Biodefense Research Section)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Innate Immunity (University of Connecticut Health Center)

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