Volume 3.15 | Apr 22

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.15 April 22, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Innate Lymphoid Cells Control Early Colonization Resistance against Intestinal Pathogens through ID2-Dependent Regulation of the Microbiota
Using conditionally deficient mice in which ID2 is deleted from differentiated ILC3s, investigators observed that these mutant mice exhibited greatly impaired gut colonization resistance against Citrobacter rodentium. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
TREM-2 Promotes Macrophage Survival and Lung Disease after Respiratory Viral Infection
Investigators studied a mouse model in which infection with a mouse parainfluenza virus known as Sendai virus leads to long-term activation of innate immune cells that drive IL-13-dependent lung disease. [J Exp Med] Abstract

Alveolar Macrophage-Derived Type I Interferons Orchestrate Innate Immunity to RSV through Recruitment of Antiviral Monocytes
Scientists showed that alveolar macrophages (AMs) are the major source of type I interferons upon respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in mice. AMs detect RSV via mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS)-coupled retinoic acid-inducible gene 1-like receptors, and loss of MAVS greatly compromises innate immune restriction of RSV. [J Exp Med] Abstract

PD-1 Co-Inhibitory and OX40 Co-Stimulatory Crosstalk Regulates Helper T Cell Differentiation and Anti-Plasmodium Humoral Immunity
Researchers showed that malaria patients and Plasmodium-infected rodents exhibit atypical expression of the co-stimulatory receptor OX40 on CD4 T cells and that therapeutic enhancement of OX40 signaling enhances helper CD4 T cell activity, humoral immunity, and parasite clearance in rodents. [Cell Host Microbe]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Eliminating Hepatitis B by Antagonizing Cellular Inhibitors of Apoptosis
Scientists showed that the clinical-stage drug birinapant, which antagonizes host cell inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, preferentially promotes the killing of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected hepatocytes in a mouse model of HBV. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

Adaptive Immune-Mediated Host Resistance to Toxoplasma gondii Is Governed by the NF-κB Regulator Bcl-3 in Dendritic Cells
Researchers showed that Bcl-3 expression in dendritic cells is required to generate a protective Th1-type immune response and confer resistance to T. gondii. Surprisingly, mice lacking Bcl-3 in dendritic cells were as susceptible as mice globally deficient for Bcl-3. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract


Elevated Expression of CD160 and 2B4 Defines a Cytolytic HIV-Specific CD8 T Cell Population in Elite Controllers
Investigators assessed co-expression of PD-1, Lag-3, CD160 and 2B4 as a measure of T cell exhaustion in a cohort of HIV elite controllers compared to chronic progressors. [J Infect Dis] Abstract

Novel CD4-Based Bispecific Chimeric Antigen Receptor Designed for Enhanced Anti-HIV Potency and Absence of HIV Entry Receptor Activity
Researchers describe a novel bispecific chimeric antigen receptor in which a CD4 segment is linked to a single chain variable fragment of the 17b human monoclonal antibody recognizing a highly conserved CD4-induced epitope on gp120 involved in coreceptor binding. [J Virol] Abstract

Stable Phenotypic Changes of the Host T Cells Are Essential to the Long-Term Stability of Latent HIV-1 Infection
Investigators demonstrate that host-cells of latent HIV-1 infection events were functionally altered in ways that are consistent with the idea of an anergic, unresponsive T cell phenotype. [J Virol] Abstract

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Romidepsin Inhibits De Novo HIV-1 Infections
A potential concern is that reversing HIV latency with an histone deacetylase inhibitor may reactivate the virus in anatomical compartments with sub-optimal combination antiretroviral therapy concentrations leading to de novo infection of susceptible cells in these sites. Scientists tested physiologically relevant romidepsin concentrations known to reactivate latent HIV in order to definitively address this concern. [Antimicrob Agents Chemother] Abstract

Attrition of TCR Vα7.2+ CD161++ MAIT Cells in HIV-Tuberculosis Co-Infection Is Associated with Elevated Levels of PD-1 Expression
Researchers conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the frequencies and phenotypes of CD161++CD8+ T cells among anti-retroviral therapy (ART)/anti-tuberculosis (TB) therapy treatment-naïve human immunodeficiency virus type (HIV)/TB co-infected, ART/TB treated HIV/TB co-infected, ART naïve HIV-infected, ART-treated HIV-infected patients, and HIV negative healthy controls by flow cytometry. [PLoS One] Full Article

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How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles
Engineering T Cells to Functionally Cure HIV-1 Infection
The authors focus on T cell gene engineering and gene editing strategies that have been performed in efforts to inhibit HIV-1 replication and highlights the requirements for a successful gene therapy-mediated functional cure. [Mol Ther] Abstract

The Innate Immune Roles of Host Factors TRIM5α and Cyclophilin A on HIV-1 Replication
The authors aimed to comprehensively discuss the sensing and immune activation procedures of TRIM5α innate signaling pathway through Cyclophilin A. They then present the production of TRIMCyp chimeric gene and the different fusion patterns in primates. [Med Microbiol Immunol] Abstract

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GeoVax to Seek Dual Pathway for Advancing Its HIV Preventive Vaccine
GeoVax Labs, Inc. announced its intention to pursue a dual pathway for advancing its preventive clade B HIV vaccine into pivotal human efficacy trials. [GeoVax Labs, Inc.] Press Release

Mymetics-Led Consortium Awarded €8.4 Million for Development of Thermo Stable and Cold-Chain Independent Vaccines
Mymetics Corporation announced that its subsidiary Mymetics BV in the Netherlands is leading a consortium that has been selected to receive project grants with a total value of €8.4 million. The grants will fund the evaluation, development and manufacturing scale-up of thermo stable and cold-chain independent nano-pharmaceutical virosome-based vaccine candidates. [Mymetics Corporation (B3C Newswire)] Press Release

Inovio Pharmaceuticals and Roche Initiate Clinical Trial for Inovio’s DNA Immunotherapy to Treat Chronic Hepatitis B Infection
Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that it has initiated a Phase I trial to evaluate Inovio’s DNA immunotherapy in patients who are chronically infected with hepatitis B. [Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

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NEW Immune Profiling in Health and Disease
September 9-11, 2015
Seattle, United States

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NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – HIV T Cell Immunology and Vaccine Development (University of Texas at El Paso)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – HIV Resistant Macrophages (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immunology/Virology (Inserm)

NEW Early Stage Researcher – Identification and Characterization of Hepatitis B Virus Inhibitors (AiCuris GmbH)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Immuno-Metabolism (East Carolina University)

Postdoctoral Position – Immune Responses and Virus Biology (Biodefense Research Section)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Innate Immunity (University of Connecticut Health Center)

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