Volume 3.13 | Apr 8

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.13 April 8, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Experimental Ebola Vaccine Safe, Prompts Immune Response
​An early-stage clinical trial of an experimental Ebola vaccine found that the vaccine VSV-ZEBOV was safe and elicited robust antibody responses in all 40 of the healthy adults who received it. [Press release from the National Institutes of Health discussing online prepublication in the New England Journal of Medicine]
Press Release | Full Article
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Rapid Linkage of Innate Immunological Signals to Adaptive Immunity by the Brain-Fat Axis
Researchers found that while the abundance of tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) quickly increased in the brain of mice following bacterial infection, intra-brain delivery of TNF mimicked bacterial infection to rapidly increase the number of peripheral lymphocytes, especially in the spleen and fat. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Biomarkers on Patient T Cells Diagnose Active Tuberculosis and Monitor Treatment Response
Scientists identified blood-based host biomarkers associated with active tuberculosis and hypothesized that immune activation markers on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific CD4+ T cells would be associated with Mtb load in vivo and could thus provide a gauge of Mtb infection. [J Clin Invest] Full Article

Low Doses of Imatinib Induce Myelopoiesis and Enhance Host Anti-Microbial Immunity
Increasing neutrophil numbers by adoptive transfer sufficed to reduce mycobacterial load, and imatinib reduced bacterial load of Franciscella spp., which do not utilize imatinib-sensitive protein tyrosine kinases for pathogenesis. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Press Release

Hantaan Virus Infection Induces Both Th1 and ThGranzyme B+ Cell Immune Responses that Associated with Viral Control and Clinical Outcome in Humans
Based on the T-cell epitopes mapped on Hantaan virus glycoprotein, researchers studied the effects and characteristics of CD4+ T-cell responses in determining the outcome of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

HIV

Viremia Suppressed in HIV-1-Infected Humans by Broadly Neutralizing Antibody 3BNC117
Scientists report the results of a first-in-man dose escalation Phase I clinical trial of 3BNC117, a potent human CD4 binding site antibody, in uninfected and HIV-1-infected individuals. 3BNC117 infusion was well tolerated and demonstrated favorable pharmacokinetics. [Nature] Abstract | Press Release

Epitope-Specific CD8+ T Cell Kinetics Rather than Viral Variability Determine the Timing of Immune Escape in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
Scientists analyzed the epitope-specific CD8+ T cells in 25 SIV-infected pigtail macaques responding to three SIV epitopes. Two epitopes showed a variable escape pattern and one had a highly monomorphic escape pattern. [J Immunol] Abstract

Live Attenuated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccination Confers Superinfection Resistance against Macrophage-Tropic and Neurovirulent Wild-Type SIV Challenge
Investigators characterized the biological breadth of SIVmacC8 vaccine protection by assessing the ability of both the nef-disrupted SIVmacC8 and its nef-intact counterpart SIVmacJ5 viruses to prevent superinfection with the macrophage/neurotropic SIVmac239/17E-Fr isolate. [J Gen Virol] Abstract | Full Article

Acceleration of Age-Associated Methylation Patterns in HIV-1-Infected Adults
Researchers investigated whether HIV-1-infection would induce age-associated methylation changes. They evaluated DNA methylation levels at greater than 450,000 CpG sites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of young and older adults in two separate groups of participants. [PLoS One] Full Article | Press Release 

Site-Specific Differences in T Cell Frequencies and Phenotypes in the Blood and Gut of HIV-Uninfected and ART-Treated HIV+ Adults
Researchers measured T cell frequencies and markers of memory, activation, anergy, and homing in the blood, ileum, and rectum of HIV and ART-suppressed HIV+ adults. [PLoS One] Full Article

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REVIEWS
Global Transcriptional Characterization of CD8+ T Cell Memory
Distinct transcriptional regulation observed during chronic viral infection that results in generation of T cells that control viral replication in the absence of immunopathology suggests the existence of so far unappreciated functional adaptation of T cell function to the particular need during chronic infections to control infection and avoid immunopathology. [Semin Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
IHV Awarded $50 Million to Combat HIV Crisis in Zambia
The Institute of Human Virology (IHV) at the University of Maryland School of Medicine received a $50 million five-year grant from the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) to support the program, “Stop Mother and Child HIV Transmission” in Zambia. [The Institute of Human Virology] Press Release

Duke Research Teams Win Large Federal Grants for HIV Vaccine Studies
Two research teams at Duke Medicine have received large, multi-year grants from the National Institutes of Health to pursue projects on HIV vaccine development. [Duke University] Press Release

Next Step for Proposed HIV Gene Therapy
Pre-clinical trials of a genetic treatment to permanently suppress HIV are about to begin at the QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, in Brisbane. [QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW International Conference on Vaccines Research & Development (Vaccines R&D-2015)
November 2-4, 2015
Baltimore, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Position – HIV Immunology (University of Massachusetts Medical School)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immune Responses and Virus Biology (Biodefense Research Section)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Host-Pathogen Interactions (University of Pittsburgh)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Innate Immunity (University of Connecticut Health Center)

Research Associate – Cell Biology (University College London)

Manufacturing Manager – Cell Therapy (Opexa Therapeutics)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cytokine Signaling (Inserm)


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