Volume 3.10 | Mar 18

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.10 March 18, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Inflammatory Factor IL-3 May Play Essential Role in Development of Sepsis
Researchers found that interleukin-3 (IL-3), an inflammatory factor most associated with allergic reactions, appears to have an important role in the overwhelming, life-threatening immune reaction called sepsis. [Press release from Massachusetts General Hospital discussing online prepublication in Science]
Press Release | Abstract
Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Human Antibodies Fix Complement to Inhibit Plasmodium falciparum Invasion of Erythrocytes and Are Associated with Protection against Malaria
Researchers demonstrated that acquired human anti-malarial antibodies promoted complement deposition on the merozoite to mediate inhibition of erythrocyte invasion through C1q fixation and activation of the classical complement pathway. [Immunity] Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Autophagy Receptor NDP52 Regulates Pathogen-Containing Autophagosome Maturation
Investigators showed that NDP52 promoted the maturation of autophagosomes via its interaction with LC3A, LC3B, and/or GABARAPL2 through a distinct LC3-interacting region, and with MYOSIN VI. During Salmonella Typhimurium infection, the regulatory function of NDP52 in autophagosome maturation was complementary but independent of its function in pathogen targeting to autophagosomes, which relied on the interaction with LC3C. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Pathogenic Fungi Regulate Immunity by Inducing Neutrophilic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells
Using both mouse models and human patients, researchers showed that infection with the human pathogenic fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans induced a distinct subset of neutrophilic myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which functionally suppress T and NK cell responses. [Cell Host Microbe]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract

IRF8 Directs Stress-Induced Autophagy in Macrophages and Promotes Clearance of Listeria monocytogenes
Scientists showed that ​interferon regulatory factor 8 (​IRF8) was required for the expression of autophagy-related genes in dendritic cells. Furthermore in macrophages, ​IRF8 was induced by multiple autophagy-inducing stresses, including ​IFNγ and Toll-like receptor stimulation, bacterial infection, starvation and by ​macrophage colony-stimulating factor. ​[Nat Commun] Abstract

T-Bet- and STAT4-Dependent IL-33 Receptor Expression Directly Promotes Antiviral Th1 Cell Responses
Researchers showed that Th1 effector cells expressed ST2 upon differentiation in vitro and in vivo during lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. The expression of ST2 on Th1 cells was transient, in contrast to constitutive ST2 expression on Th2 cells, and marked highly activated effector cells. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

MAPK Phosphatase 5 Expression Induced by Influenza and Other RNA Virus Infection Negatively Regulates IRF3 Activation and Type I Interferon Response
Investigators showed that virus infection induced the expression of MAPK phosphatase 5 (MKP5), a dual-specificity phosphatase, in host cells. Mice deficient in MKP5 were resistant to H1N1 influenza infection, which was associated with increased IRF3 activation and type I interferon expression in comparison with WT mice. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Delayed Control of Herpes Simplex Virus Infection and Impaired CD4+ T-Cell Migration to the Skin in Mouse Models of DOCK8 Deficiency
The authors show that DOCK8-deficient mice have poor control of primary cutaneous herpes simplex lesions and this is associated with increased virus loads. Furthermore, DOCK8-deficient mice showed a lack of CD4+ T-cell infiltration into herpes simplex virus-infected skin. [Immunol Cell Biol] Full Article


CD4+ T Cell-Derived IL-21 and Deprivation of CD40 Signaling Favor the In Vivo Development of Granzyme B-Expressing Regulatory B Cells in HIV Patients
Scientists demonstrated that untreated HIV patients display CD4+ T cells with enhanced IL-21 expression and high in vivo frequencies of regulatory B cells overexpressing the serine protease granzyme B. [J Immunol] Abstract

Primate Immune Responses to HIV-1 Env Formulated in the Saponin-Based Adjuvant AbISCO-100 in the Presence or Absence of TLR9 Co-Stimulation
Scientists used CpG-C together with the clinically relevant saponin-based adjuvant AbISCO-100/Matrix-M, to assess if Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 co-stimulation would quantitatively or qualitatively modulate HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env)-specific B and T cell responses in rhesus macaques. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Reconstitution and Characterization of Antibody Repertoires of HIV-1-Infected “Elite Neutralizers”
The authors investigated the antibody repertoires of three “elite neutralizers” by reconstituting the immune antibody repertories in vitro followed by a comparative study of the recombinant library IgGs with the corresponding serum IgGs. [Antiviral Res] Abstract

A Plant-Derived Multi-HIV Antigen Induces Broad Immune Responses in Orally Immunized Mice
BALB/c mice orally immunized with tobacco-derived multi-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) had elicited antibody responses, including both the V3 loop of gp120 and the ELDKWA epitope of gp41. Based on splenocyte proliferation assays, stimulation with epitopes of the C4, V3 domain of gp120, and the ELDKWA domain of gp41 elicited positive cellular responses. [Mol Biotechnol] Abstract

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March Magnet Maddness: Free EasySep™ Magnet with Purchase of Cell Isolation Reagents
The Role of Sex Hormones in Immune Protection of the Female Reproductive Tract
Estradiol and progesterone, which are secreted during the menstrual cycle, affect epithelial cells, fibroblasts and immune cells in the female reproductive tract (FRT) to modify their functions and hence the individual’s susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections in ways that are unique to specific sites in the FRT. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract | Press Release

Chemokine-Mediated Immune Responses in the Female Genital Tract Mucosa
The authors review recent developments in our understanding of the immune response in the female genital tract to infectious pathogens, using herpes simplex virus-2, human immunodeficiency virus-1 and Chlamydia trachomatis as examples, with a particular focus on the role of chemokines in orchestrating immune cell migration necessary to achieve effective innate and adaptive immune responses in the female genital tract. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.
New Lead against HIV Could Finally Hobble the Virus’s Edge
Scientists announced new progress toward affordable drugs that could potentially thwart the virus’s ability to resist them. [Press release from the American Chemical Society (ACS) discussing research to be presented at the 249th National Meeting & Exposition of the ACS, Denver] Press Release

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NIH Awards $16 Million to Penn-Led Group to Develop Synthetic DNA Vaccines to Fight HIV
The National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases has awarded $16 million over the next five years for a collaborative study led by scientists from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. [University of Pennsylvania Health System] Press Release

RetroVirox Awarded $3 Million NIH Grant to Develop Drugs to Cure HIV Infection
RetroVirox, Inc. announced it has received a $3 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to develop immunomodulators to eradicate HIV infection with “shock and kill” therapies. [RetroVirox, Inc. (Marketwire L.P.)] Press Release

Lakewood-Amedex Announces Expanded Research Collaboration with the University of Jyvaskyla following Promising Results Demonstrating Bisphosphocin™ Activity against Borrelia burgdorferi
Lakewood-Amedex Inc. announced that it has expanded upon a research collaboration with Dr. Leona Gilbert at the Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences of the University of Jyvaskyla to further characterize the activity of bisphosphocins™ against B. burgdorferi. [Lakewood-Amedex Inc. (PR Newswire Association LLC)] Press Release

Arch Biopartners Identifies Candidate Drug to Treat Psuedomonas Respiratory Infections
Arch Biopartners Inc. announced it has identified a new candidate drug to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa respiratory infections. This new drug is the result of development work performed during 2014 and early 2015 by Dr. Daniel Hassett at the University of Cincinnati. [Arch Biopartners Inc. (Marketwire L.P.)] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Cell Symposium: Cell Death and Immunity
November 8-10, 2015
Berkeley, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
NEW Research Associate – Cell Biology (University College London)

NEW PhD Studentship – Immunology and Cellular Signaling (Luxembourg Institute of Health)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Manufacturing Manager – Cell Therapy (Opexa Therapeutics)

PhD Studentship – Innate Lymphoid Cells (University of Birmingham)

PhD Studentship – Host Genetic Regulation of Viral Infection of Importance for Development of Multiple Sclerosis (Karolinska Institutet)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Infection and Immunity (Wuhan Institute of Virology)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cytokine Signaling (Inserm)

Director – Vector Production (Sangamo BioSciences, Inc.)

Senior Process Development Engineer (Sangamo BioSciences, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Innate Immune Signaling in Pathogen Infection (Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute)

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