Volume 3.07 | Feb 25

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.07 February 25, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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TOP STORY
Balance of Cellular and Humoral Immunity Determines the Level of Protection by HIV Vaccines in Rhesus Macaque Models of HIV Infection
Researchers showed that a gp120-CD4 chimeric subunit protein vaccine elicits heterologous protection against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) acquisition in three independent rhesus macaque repeated low-dose rectal challenge studies with SHIV162P3 or SIVmac251. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article
Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
CD47 Regulates the Phagocytic Clearance and Replication of the Plasmodium yoelii Malaria Parasite
Scientists investigated the role of CD47 on the growth and survival of nonlethal P. yoelii 17XNL malaria in C57BL/6 mice. Enhanced resistance to malaria observed in CD47−/− mice was associated with a higher percentage of splenic F4/80+ cells, and these cells had a higher percentage of phagocytized parasitized red blood cells than infected WT mice during the acute phase of infection, when parasitemia was rapidly rising. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Critical Role of IL-33 Receptor ST2 in Experimental Cerebral Malaria Development
Researchers showed that IL-33 expression is increased in brain undergoing experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) and addressed the role of the IL-33/ST2 pathway in ECM development. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

Leishmania infantum Amastigotes Trigger a Subpopulation of Human B Cells with an Immunoregulatory Phenotype
The authors report that incubation of human B cells with L. infantum amastigotes resulted in upregulation of multiple cell surface activation markers and a dose-dependent secretion of IL-10. Conditioned media from B cells incubated with L. infantum amastigotes were shown to strongly inhibit CD4+ T-cell activation, proliferation and function. [PLoS Negl Trop Dis] Full Article

Telocinobufagin Enhances the Th1 Immune Response and Protects against Salmonella typhimurium Infection
Researchers investigated whether telocinobufagin (TBG) enhances the Th1 immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) and formalin-inactivated S. typhimurium (FIST) in mice. TBG augmented serum OVA- and FIST-specific IgG and IgG2a and the production of IFNγ by antigen-restimulated splenocytes. [Int Immunopharmacol] Abstract

HIV

CD8 T Cell Response Maturation Defined by Anentropic Specificity and Repertoire Depth Correlates with SIVΔnef-Induced Protection
Investigators exploited deep sequencing technology and comprehensive CD8 T cell epitope mapping to deconstruct the CD8 T cell response, to identify the regions of immune pressure and viral escape, and to delineate the effect of epitope escape on the evolution of the CD8 T cell response in SIVΔnef-vaccinated animals. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Blimp-1, an Intrinsic Factor that Represses HIV-1 Proviral Transcription in Memory CD4+ T Cells
The authors report that B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1), a critical regulator of B and T cell differentiation, is highly expressed in memory CD4+ T cells compared with naïve CD4+ T cells and represses basal and Tat-mediated HIV-1 transcription. [J Immunol] Abstract

The HIV-1 Gp120/CXCR4 Axis Promotes CCR7 Ligand-Dependent CD4 T Cell Migration: CCR7 Homo- and CCR7/CXCR4 Hetero-Oligomer Formation as a Possible Mechanism for Up-Regulation of Functional CCR7
Scientists report that a recombinant form of a viral CXCR4 ligand, X4-tropic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 gp120, enhanced the CD4 T cell response to CCR7 ligands in a manner dependent on CXCR4 and CD4, and that this effect was recapitulated by HIV-1 virions. [PLoS One] Full Article

miR-146a Controls CXCR4 Expression in a Pathway that Involves PLZF and Can Be Used to Inhibit HIV-1 Infection of CD4+ T Lymphocytes
Investigators found that PLZF mediates suppression of miR-146a to control increases of CXCR4 and TRAF6 protein levels in human primary CD4+ T lymphocytes. They showed that miR-146a upregulation by AMD3100 treatment or PLZF silencing, decreases CXCR4 protein expression and prevents HIV-1 infection of leukemic monocytic cell line and CD4+ T lymphocytes. [Virology] Full Article

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REVIEWS
Broadly Neutralizing Antibody and the HIV Reservoir in Acute HIV Infection: A Strategy toward HIV Remission?
The authors discuss the effects of early antiretroviral therapy and broadly neutralizing antibodies on HIV reservoirs and propose research strategies in acute HIV infection aiming at HIV reservoir reduction and HIV remission. [Curr Opin HIV AIDS] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
NIH Selects Emory-Led Partnership as One of Four TB Research Units, with Seven-Year $18.7M Grant
In an effort to drive innovation in tuberculosis (TB) research, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has selected four sites, including one led by Emory University and collaborating institutions, for a TB Research Units network. [Emory University] Press Release

Polio Vaccination with Microneedle Patches Receives Funding for Patch Development, Clinical Trial
The Georgia Institute of Technology and Micron Biomedical have been awarded $2.5 million in grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to advance the development of dissolvable microneedle patches for polio immunization. [Georgia Institute of Technology] Press Release

Cyclenium Pharma and Fundación MEDINA Announce Drug Discovery and Collaboration Agreement
Cyclenium Pharma Inc. announced the signing of a drug discovery and collaboration agreement. The collaboration will utilize Cyclenium’s proprietary QUEST Library™ of next generation macrocyclic molecules and associated hit-to-clinical candidate optimization capabilities in concert with the extensive expertise and experience of Fundación MEDINA in infective disease research. [Cyclenium Pharma Inc.] Press Release

NIH-Supported Clinical Trials to Evaluate Long-Acting, Injectable Antiretroviral Drugs to Prevent HIV Infection
Two new clinical trials are examining the safety and acceptability of antiretroviral medicines administered via injection as a means of protecting against HIV infection. [National Institutes of Health] Press Release

NIH-Sponsored HIV Vaccine Trial Launches in South Africa
A clinical trial called HVTN 100 has been launched in South Africa to study an investigational HIV vaccine regimen for safety and the immune responses it generates in study participants. [National Institutes of Health] Press Release

From our sponsor: Free Nature Reviews Immunology poster – Immune Response to HIV. Request a copy.
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 2015 Microbiology and Immunology Conference (MIC 2015)
March 18-20, 2015
Suzhou, China

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW PhD Studentship – Host Genetic Regulation of Viral Infection of Importance for Development of Multiple Sclerosis (Karolinska Institutet)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Infection and Immunity (Wuhan Institute of Virology)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cytokine Signaling (Inserm)

PhD Studentship – Characterization of the Immediate Early Response of Human Dendritic Cells to Candida albicans (International Leibniz Research School)

Director – Vector Production (Sangamo BioSciences, Inc.)

Senior Process Development Engineer (Sangamo BioSciences, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Innate and Adaptive Immune Mechanisms of Viral Persistence and Cancer (Princess Margaret Cancer Centre)

Postdoctoral Position – Innate Immune Signaling in Pathogen Infection (Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Mechanisms of HIV-1 Immune Control and Dendritic Cell Immunopathology in HIV-1 Infection (Massachusetts General Hospital)


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