Volume 3.06 | Feb 18

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.06 February 18, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Scientists Announce Anti-HIV Agent So Powerful It Can Work in a Vaccine
Researchers announced the creation of a novel drug candidate that is so potent and universally effective, it might work as part of an unconventional vaccine. The study shows that the new drug candidate blocks every strain of HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus) that has been isolated from humans or rhesus macaques, including the hardest-to-stop variants. [Press release from The Scripps Research Institute discussing online publication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Candida albicans Morphology and Dendritic Cell Subsets Determine T Helper Cell Differentiation
Using a murine skin infection model, investigators compared T helper cell responses to yeast and filamentous C. albicans. They found that only yeast induced T helper 17 cell responses through a mechanism that required Dectin-1-mediated expression of interleukin-6 by Langerhans cells. [Immunity] Abstract

DNA Damage Primes the Type I Interferon System via the Cytosolic DNA Sensor STING to Promote Anti-Microbial Innate Immunity
By analyzing ataxia telangiectasia (AT) patient samples and Atm−/− mice, researchers found that unrepaired DNA lesions induced type I interferons, resulting in enhanced anti-viral and anti-bacterial responses in Atm−/− mice. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

IL-33-Mediated Protection against Experimental Cerebral Malaria Is Linked to Induction of Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells, M2 Macrophages and Regulatory T Cells
Using the blood-stage PbA (Plasmodium berghei ANKA) model of infection, investigators show that administration of the pro-Th2 cytokine, IL-33, prevents the development of experimental cerebral malaria in C57BL/6 mice and reduces the production of inflammatory mediators IFN-γ, IL-12 and TNF-α. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Dynamic Co-Evolution of Host and Pathogen: HCMV Downregulates the Prevalent Allele MICA*008 to Escape Elimination by NK Cells
A highly prevalent MICA allele, MICA*008, is considered to be an human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-resistant “escape variant” that confers advantage to human natural killer (NK) cells in recognizing infected cells. However, scientists show that HCMV uses its viral glycoprotein US9 to specifically target MICA*008 and thus escapes NKG2D attack. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Blockage Therapy Impairs Hepatitis B Viral Clearance and Enhances T-Cell Exhaustion in a Mouse Model
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) clearance and T-cell responses were analyzed in a HBV-transfected mouse model under anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockage therapy. Results demonstrated that under TNF-α blockage therapy, HBV viral clearance was impaired with persistent elevated HBV viral load in a dose- and temporal-dependent manner. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract


Replicative Fitness of Transmitted HIV-1 Drives Acute Immune Activation, Proviral Load in Memory CD4+ T Cells, and Disease Progression
In an analysis of 127 acutely infected Zambians, scientists demonstrate a dramatic and early impact of viral replicative capacity on HIV-1 immunopathogenesis that is independent of viral load. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

HIV-1-Induced Impairment of Dendritic Cell Cross-Talk with γδ T Lymphocytes
Scientists investigated whether HIV-exposed dendritic cells (DC) could deliver aberrant signals to interacting γδ Τ cells. They report that the interaction of human γδ T lymphocytes with HIV-1-exposed autologous monocyte-derived DC, but not direct exposure to the virus, impairs lymphocyte expansion and IFN-γ production in response to phosphoantigens. [J Virol] Abstract

PDC and Functional HIV Gag p55-Specific T Cells before Treatment Interruption Can Inform Set-Point Plasma HIV Viral Load after Treatment Interruption in Chronically Suppressed HIV-1+ Subjects
Researchers investigated the relationship between set-point plasma HIV viral load during an antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption and innate/adaptive parameters prior or after interruption. [Immunology] Abstract

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Emerging Functions of Amphiregulin in Orchestrating Immunity, Inflammation, and Tissue Repair
Emerging data suggest that in addition to characteristic type 2-associated cytokines, the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like molecule amphiregulin (AREG) might be a critical component of type 2-mediated resistance and tolerance. The authors discuss recent advances in our understanding of the AREG-EGF receptor pathway and its involvement in infection and inflammation and propose a model for the function of this pathway in the context of resistance and tissue tolerance. [Immunity] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.
Cambridge Partners with India to Fight Multidrug Resistant TB
The University of Cambridge has been awarded £2 million from the UK Medical Research Council and the Government of India’s Department for Biotechnology to develop a partnership with the National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis (TB) in Chennai. [University of Cambridge] Press Release

Study to Begin on Developing Diagnostics for Deadly Mold Infection
A new grant will fund research to develop a diagnosis for mucormycosis fungal infections. Ashraf S. Ibrahim, PhD, a Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute lead investigator and founder of Vitalex Biosciences, will be conducting research to develop a rapid method for diagnosing mucormycosis. [Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (EurekAlert!)] Press Release

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Recommendations to Fast-Track Ebola Vaccine Development
A panel of international experts, concerned about the acknowledged risk that Ebola transmission could continue into the foreseeable future, published a roadmap to fast-track development of Ebola vaccines. [Wellcome Trust] Editorial | Report

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW The 2015 TB Summit
March 24-26, 2015
London, United Kingdom

NEW Keystone Symposium – Mechanisms of HIV Persistence: Implications for a Cure
April 26-May 1, 2015
Boston, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Infection and Immunity (Wuhan Institute of Virology)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Cytokine Signaling (Inserm)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

PhD Studentship – Characterization of the Immediate Early Response of Human Dendritic Cells to Candida albicans (International Leibniz Research School)

Director – Vector Production (Sangamo BioSciences, Inc.)

Senior Process Development Engineer (Sangamo BioSciences, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Innate and Adaptive Immune Mechanisms of Viral Persistence and Cancer (Princess Margaret Cancer Centre)

PhD Position – Infection Biology and Innate Immunity (Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research)

Postdoctoral Position – Innate Immune Signaling in Pathogen Infection (Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Mechanisms of HIV-1 Immune Control and Dendritic Cell Immunopathology in HIV-1 Infection (Massachusetts General Hospital)

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