Volume 3.05 | Feb 11

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.05 February 11, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Single-Cell Analysis Shows that Paracrine Signaling by First Responder Cells Shapes the Interferon-β Response to Viral Infection
Researchers investigated the mechanisms underlying how increases in the amount of the gene encoding interferons-β (Ifnb1) mRNA per cell and in the numbers of cells expressing Ifnb1 calibrate the response to viral infection. They used single-cell, single-molecule assays to quantify the early induction of Ifnb1 expression in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells infected with Newcastle disease virus. [Science] Abstract
How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Suppression of Fcγ-Receptor-Mediated Antibody Effector Function during Persistent Viral Infection
Investigators showed that increased amounts of immune complexes generated in mice persistently infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus suppressed multiple Fcγ-receptor functions. [Immunity]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Antibody Effector Functions Mediated by Fcγ-Receptors Are Compromised during Persistent Viral Infection
Using transgenic mice expressing human CD20, scientists found that chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection impaired the depletion of B cells with rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody widely used for the treatment of B cell lymphomas. In addition, Fcγ-receptor-dependent activation of dendritic cells by agonistic anti-CD40 antibody was compromised in chronically infected mice. [Immunity] Abstract

IL-1α Signaling Is Critical for Leukocyte Recruitment after Pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus Challenge
The mechanism of neutrophil and macrophage recruitment to the respiratory tract after A. fumigatus exposure remains an area of ongoing investigation. Researchers show that A. fumigatus pulmonary challenge induces expression of the inflammasome-dependent cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 within the first 12 hours, while IL-1α expression continually increases over at least the first 48 hours. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Press Release

Control of Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection by γδ T Cells
Scientists show for murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infections that mice that lack CD8 and CD4 αβ-T cells as well as B lymphocytes can control a MCMV infection that is lethal in RAG-1-/- mice lacking any T- and B-cells. γδ T cells, isolated from infected mice can kill MCMV infected target cells in vitro and, importantly, provide long-term protection in infected RAG-1-/- mice after adoptive transfer. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Functional Heterogeneity in the CD4+ T Cell Response to Murine γ-Herpesvirus 68
Scientists studied the differentiation and function of murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68)-specific CD4+ T cells using gp150-specific TCR-transgenic mice. Most gp150-specific CD4+ T cells expressed T-bet and produced IFN-γ, indicating that MHV-68 infection triggered differentiation of CD4+ T cells largely into the Th1 subset, whereas some became follicular Th cells and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. [J Immunol] Abstract


Lentivirus Mediated Gene Transfer in Hematopoietic Stem Cells Is Impaired in SHIV-Infected, ART-Treated Nonhuman Primates
Following SHIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART), animals undergo autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with lentivirally transduced CD34+ cells expressing the mC46 anti-HIV fusion protein. Investigators report that SHIV+, ART-treated animals had very low gene marking levels after HSCT. [Mol Ther] Abstract

African Green Monkey TRIM5α Restriction in SIV-Specific Rhesus Macaque Effector CD4 T Cells Enhances Their Survival and Antiviral Function
Experiments with T-cell clones revealed that African green monkey TRIM5α could reproducibly restrict SIVmac239 replication and that this restriction synergizes with an intrinsic resistance to infection present in some CD4 T-cell clones. [J Virol] Abstract

Synthetic Long Peptide Booster Immunization in Rhesus Macaques Primed with Replication Competent NYVAC-C-KC Induces a Balanced CD4/CD8 T-Cell and Antibody Response against the Conserved Regions of HIV-1
To generate a more balanced CD4/CD8 T-cell and antibody response, scientists evaluated a pox-vector prime/synthetic long peptide boost strategy in rhesus macaques. [J Gen Virol] Abstract

Comprehensive Evaluation of the Immune Risk Phenotype in Successfully Treated HIV-Infected Individuals
The immune risk phenotype (IRP) consists of laboratory markers that include: a low CD4:CD8 T-cell ratio, an expansion of CD8+CD28 T-cells and cytomegalovirus seropositivity. Scientists characterized immune changes associated with the IRP in a sample of successfully treated HIV-infected subjects. [PLoS One] Full Article

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Type I Interferon: Understanding Its Role in HIV Pathogenesis and Therapy
The authors describe the history of HIV and type I interferon (IFN-I), IFN-I’s sources, IFN-I’s effects on HIV control and host defense, and recent interventional studies in SIV and HIV infection. [Curr HIV/AIDS Rep] Abstract

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Preclinical Melioidosis Results Presented
Soligenix, Inc. presented data from its recent preclinical study that demonstrated statistically significant efficacy of SGX943 in a mouse model of acute, lethal pneumonic melioidosis. [Press release from Soligenix, Inc. discussing research presented at the American Society of Microbiology (ASM) Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research Meeting, Washington DC] Press Release

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Stanford Launches Major Effort to Expedite Vaccine Discovery with $50 Million Grant
Stanford University announced that it has received a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to accelerate efforts in vaccine development. The $50 million grant over ten years will build on existing technology developed at Stanford and housed in the Human Immune Monitoring Core, and will establish the Stanford Human Systems Immunology Center. [Stanford University] Press Release

Case Western Reserve Awarded $3.9 Million for Innovative HIV Research
A researcher at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine has been awarded $3.9 million to determine if the combination of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and drug abuse is a double kick in the gut, leading to organ damage throughout the body. [Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine] Press Release

Mining Immune Systems of Ebola Survivors for Therapeutic Gold
Does the blood of Ebola virus disease survivors contain antibodies and immune cells that could help doctors fight Ebola infections in other people? An all-star team of researchers will begin answering this question. [Emory University] Press Release
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Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Keystone Symposium – Innate Immunity and Determinants of Microbial Pathogenesis
April 19-24, 2015
Olympic Valley, United States

NEW Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies (FOCIS) 2015
June 24-27, 2015
San Diego, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
NEW PhD Studentship – Characterization of the Immediate Early Response of Human Dendritic Cells to Candida albicans (International Leibniz Research School)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Director – Vector Production (Sangamo BioSciences, Inc.)

Senior Process Development Engineer (Sangamo BioSciences, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Innate and Adaptive Immune Mechanisms of Viral Persistence and Cancer (Princess Margaret Cancer Centre)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology Animal Models (The Technical University of Denmark)

PhD Position – Infection Biology and Innate Immunity (Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research)

Postdoctoral Position – Innate Immune Signaling in Pathogen Infection (Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Mechanisms of HIV-1 Immune Control and Dendritic Cell Immunopathology in HIV-1 Infection (Massachusetts General Hospital)

Postdoctoral Position – Vaccines for Animal Parasites (Ghent University)

Postdoctoral Position – Group B Streptococcus Interaction in Neonatal Sepsis (Institut Pasteur)

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