Volume 3.03 | Jan 28

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.03 January 28, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Cell’s Recycling Team Helps Sound Alarm on Pathogens
Researchers have found that rather than killing fungal invaders directly, autophagy is used to chew up a molecule that would otherwise hold back the immune response. [Press release from Duke University discussing online publication in Nature Communications] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Treatment Normalizes Tuberculosis Granuloma Vasculature and Improves Small Molecule Delivery
Researchers identified a novel therapeutic target for tuberculosis, the abnormal granuloma-associated vasculature that contributes to the abnormal granuloma microenvironment. They attempted to “normalize” granuloma vasculature by blocking VEGF signaling, an approach originally shown to enhance cancer treatment. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

Immunoregulatory Actions of Melatonin and Zinc during Chronic Trypanosoma cruzi Infection
Investigators show that zinc triggers a decrease in the generation of IFN-γ for CD4+ T cells. Reduced percentage of CD4+ T cells producing TNF-α was observed in control melatonin or zinc and melatonin-treated animals as compared to untreated rats. [J Pineal Res] Abstract

Trichomonas vaginalis Infection Induces Vaginal CD4 Cell Infiltration in a Mouse Model: A Vaccine Strategy to Reduce Vaginal Infection and HIV Transmission
Scientists tested a human safe, aluminum hydroxide adjuvanted whole cell T. vaginalis vaccine for efficacy in a BALB/c mouse model of vaginal infection. [J Infect Dis] Abstract

Th17 Down-Regulation Is Involved in Reduced Progression of Schistosomiasis Fibrosis in ICOSL KO Mice
Researchers studied the role of the ICOSL/ICOS interaction in the mediation of the Th17 response in host granulomatous inflammation, particularly in liver fibrosis during Schistosoma japonicum infection, and investigated the immune responses and pathology of ICOSL KO mice in these models. [PLoS Negl Trop Dis] Full Article

Interleukin-10 from T Cells, but Not Macrophages and Granulocytes, Is Required for Chronic Disease in Leishmania mexicana Infection
Researchers show directly that mice lacking interleukin-10 (IL-10) from macrophages and granulocytes have chronic disease, like wild-type C57BL/6 mice. However, T cell-derived IL-10 is required for chronic disease. CD4-cre IL-10flox/flox mice lack IL-10 from T cells and heal their L. mexicana lesions, with parasite control. [Infect Immun] Abstract


HIV-Associated Mucosal Gene Expression: Region-Specific Alterations
The intestine is the major source of “sterile” inflammation and plays a critical role in immune function; thus, researchers sought to determine whether intestinal gene expression was altered in virally controlled HIV+ individuals. [AIDS] Abstract

Soluble Tim-3 Is Shed from CD8+ T Cells by the Sheddase ADAM10, Is Increased in Plasma during Untreated HIV Infection, and Correlates with HIV Disease Progression
Researchers show that T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 (Tim-3) is shed from the surface of responding CD8+ T cells by the matrix metalloproteinase, ADAM10, producing a soluble form of the co-inhibitory receptor. Despite previous reports in the mouse model, no alternatively spliced, soluble form of Tim-3 was observed in humans. [J Virol] Abstract

Interleukin 1- and Type I Interferon-Dependent Enhancement of the Innate Immune Profile of a NYVAC-HIV-1 Env-Gag-Pol-Nef Vaccine Vector with Dual Deletion of Type I and Type II Interferon-Binding Proteins
Scientists describe the enhanced immunological profile of NYVAC vectors expressing the HIV-1 clade C env-gag-pol-nef genes (NYVAC-C) with single or double deletion of genes encoding type I (ΔB19R) or type II (ΔB8R) interferon-binding proteins. Transcriptomic analyses of human monocytes infected with NYVAC-C, NYVAC-C-ΔB19R or NYVAC-C-ΔB8RB19R revealed a concerted up-regulation of innate immune pathways. [J Virol] Abstract

Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Immune Responses in the Pig-Tailed Macaque Testis
Local immunosuppression is a potential mechanism for HIV persistence in tissue reservoirs that few studies have examined. The response of the pig-tailed macaque testis to SIVmac239 infection was characterized to test this possibility. [J Leukoc Biol] Abstract

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Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV
Innate Immune Sensing of HIV Infection
The authors discuss recent studies that have revealed innate sensing mechanisms of HIV-1 infection in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, monocyte-derived macrophages, and CD4+ T cells. [Curr Opin Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.
NRC, Lilly Creek and AMRIC Join Forces on Vaccine to Prevent Gastritis, Ulcers, and Gastric Cancer
Researchers at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), the Advanced Medical Research Institute of Canada (AMRIC) and Lilly Creek Vaccines are developing a new vaccine to combat and eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection in Canada. [National Research Council of Canada] Press Release

UAB, Industry Partnership Could Lead to First Rapid Test for Bacterial Meningitis
Meningitis research efforts two decades in the making could soon come to fruition through a partnership between investigators at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and a medical device startup, with assistance from the UAB Institute for Innovation and Entrepreneurship. [University of Alabama at Birmingham] Press Release

Novartis Bexsero® Vaccine Approved by FDA for the Prevention of Meningitis B
Novartis announced that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted accelerated approval of Bexsero® (Meningococcal Group B Vaccine) for active immunization to prevent invasive meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B in adolescents and young adults. [Novartis AG] Press Release

Trudeau Institute Researcher Receives NIH Funding
The Trudeau Institute has been awarded $536,000 over a two-year period from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The grant will support a research project of Alexei Tumanov, M.D., Ph.D., “Defining the role of lymphotoxin signaling in viral-induced lung immunopathology.” [Trudeau Institute] Press Release

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Extra Funding Sought to Fight Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria
The Obama administration wants to double the amount of federal funding dedicated to combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria. President Obama will ask Congress for the $1.2 billion as part of his annual budget request, scheduled to be unveiled next week. [The Washington Post] Editorial

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European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Keystone Symposium – T Cells: Regulation and Effector Function
March 29-April 3, 2015
Snowbird, United States

NEW Nordic Life Sciences Days 2015
September 8-10, 2015
Stockholm, Sweden

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Innate and Adaptive Immune Mechanisms of Viral Persistence and Cancer (Princess Margaret Cancer Centre)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology Animal Models (The Technical University of Denmark)

PhD Position – Infection Biology and Innate Immunity (Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research)

PhD Studentship – Defining Innate Phenotypes Associated with Enhanced Immunity to Johne’s Disease (Teagasc)

Postdoctoral Position – Innate Immune Signaling in Pathogen Infection (Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Mechanisms of HIV-1 Immune Control and Dendritic Cell Immunopathology in HIV-1 Infection (Massachusetts General Hospital)

Postdoctoral Position – Microbe-Immune Cell Homeostasis (Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Vaccines for Animal Parasites (Ghent University)

Postdoctoral Position – Group B Streptococcus Interaction in Neonatal Sepsis (Institut Pasteur)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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