Volume 3.01 | Jan 14

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.01 January 14, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Resident and Recruited Macrophages Orchestrate the Liver’s Defense against Infection
Investigators demonstrate that liver-resident macrophages are rapidly killed by the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. This early death triggers the recruitment of macrophages from the bloodstream to the liver. [Press release from Institut Pasteur describing online prepublication in Immunity]
Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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Macrophage-Derived Human Resistin Is Induced in Multiple Helminth Infections and Promotes Inflammatory Monocytes and Increased Parasite Burden
Scientists identify an important immunoregulatory function for human resistin in helminth infection. Employing transgenic mice in which the human resistin gene was inserted, they show that human resistin is induced by infection with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, where it promotes excessive inflammation and impedes parasite killing. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Press Release

Antibody-Targeted Vaccination to Lung Dendritic Cells Generates Tissue-Resident Memory CD8 T Cells that Are Highly Protective against Influenza Virus Infection
Scientists demonstrate that recognition of antigen presented locally by dendritic cells and transforming growth factor-β signaling are both required in the differentiation of lung tissue-resident memory (Trm) cells. They exploited this knowledge to develop an antibody-targeted vaccination approach to generate lung Trm cells. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Homeostatic Control of Memory Cell Progenitors in the Natural Killer Cell Lineage
Investigators show that memory natural killer (NK) cells predominantly arise from killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1)-negative NK cell progenitors, whereas KLRG1-positive NK cells have limited capacity for expansion during infection with mouse cytomegalovirus. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

The Tyrosine Kinase Itk Suppresses CD8+ Memory T Cell Development in Response to Bacterial Infection
Researchers examined the role of Itk, a tyrosine kinase critical for TcR signaling, in CD8+ effector and memory T cell differentiation during Listeria monocytogenes infection. They found that the reduced TcR signal strength in Itk deficient naïve CD8+ T cells enhances the generation of memory T cells during infection. [Sci Rep] Full Article


Transmitted Virus Fitness and Host T Cell Responses Collectively Define Divergent Infection Outcomes in Two HIV-1 Recipients
To gain insight into the interplay between virus and host in viral control, scientists conducted a detailed analysis of two heterosexual HIV-1 subtype A transmission pairs in which female recipients sharing three HLA class I alleles exhibited contrasting clinical outcomes. Transmitted/founder virus replicative capacities were compared in vitro, while the development of the earliest cellular immune response was defined using autologous virus sequence-based peptides. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Vpu Is the Main Determinant for Tetraspanin Downregulation in HIV-1 Infected Cells
Investigators identified Vpu as the main viral determinant for tetraspanin downregulation. They also show that reduction of CD81 levels by Vpu is not a by-product of CD4 or BST-2/Tetherin elimination from the surface of infected cells and likely occurs through an interaction between Vpu and CD81. [J Virol] Abstract

Vpx-Containing Dendritic Cell Vaccine Induces CTLs and Reactivates Latent HIV-1 In Vitro
Scientists report the development of lentiviral vectors that transduce dendritic cells to both induce production of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) from latently infected cells and stimulate antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). [Gene Ther] Abstract

Human X-DING-CD4 Mediates Resistance to HIV-1 Infection through Novel Paracrine-Like Signaling
Researchers found that soluble X-DING-CD4 enters cells by endocytosis and influx of this protein induced transcription of IFN-α and endogenous X-DING-CD4 mRNA in transformed CD4+ T cells and primary macrophages. [FEBS J] Abstract

Interaction between Nef and INI1/SMARCB1 Augments Replicability of HIV-1 in Resting Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
Scientists indicate that Nef is an essential viral determinant for the integration of provirus into host chromosomes in resting T cells. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, they identified integrase interactor-1 is a cellular factor that is involved in the integration process via interaction with Nef. [Arch Virol] Abstract

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The Biology of Innate Lymphoid Cells
The authors summarize studies that formally identified innate lymphoid cells and highlight their emerging roles in controlling tissue homeostasis in the context of infection, chronic inflammation, metabolic disease and cancer. [Nature] Abstract

Chronic Hepatitis B: Role of Anti-Platelet Therapy in Inflammation Control
The authors discuss major platelet functions in immune and inflammatory responses, with an emphasis on recent pre-clinical studies that suggest that the inhibition of platelet activation pathways represent an alternative therapeutic strategy with potential use in the reduction of virus-specific T cell-mediated chronic inflammation, liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in patients who are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

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Argos Therapeutics Provides Update on Clinical Research for Investigational Fully Personalized Immunotherapy for the Treatment of HIV
Argos Therapeutics Inc. provided an update on its clinical research program for AGS-004, the company’s investigational fully personalized immunotherapy for the treatment of HIV. The primary endpoint of the trial was not achieved. [Argos Therapeutics Inc.] Press Release

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Roche, Meiji and Fedora Join Forces to Tackle Increasing Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics
Roche, Meiji Seika Pharma and Fedora announced that they have entered into a license agreement for the development and commercialization of OP0595, a beta-lactamase inhibitor in Phase I clinical development. [Roche Ltd.] Press Release

Moderna Announces License and Collaboration Agreement with Merck to Develop Messenger RNA-Based Antiviral Vaccines and Passive Immunity Therapies
Moderna Therapeutics announced a license and collaboration agreement with Merck, through a subsidiary, for the discovery and development of vaccines and passive immunity treatments against viral diseases using modified messenger RNA. [Moderna Therapeutics] Press Release

University of Rochester Tests HIV Vaccine Pill
Researchers at the University of Rochester Medical Center are testing a new oral vaccine to prevent infection with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. The study is funded and designed by Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, which received support for a Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. [University of Rochester Medical Center] Press Release

Antitope, INSERM and Baylor Institute for Immunology Research to Collaborate to Produce Manufacturing Cell Lines for Two Novel Vaccines for HIV
Antitope Limited announced that it has extended its relationship with INSERM, the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research; ANRS, the National Health Agency for Research on AIDS and Hepatitis; and the Baylor Institute for Immunology Research. [Antitope Limited] Press Release

Adaptive Biotechnologies Announces Acquisition of Sequenta, Inc.
Adaptive Biotechnologies Corporation announced the acquisition of Sequenta, Inc. which is expected to expedite and expand the use of novel immunosequencing products for researchers and clinicians to diagnose, treat, and monitor patients with cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. [Adaptive Biotechnologies Corporation] Press Release
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NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Mechanisms of HIV-1 Immune Control and Dendritic Cell Immunopathology in HIV-1 Infection (Massachusetts General Hospital)

Postdoctoral Position – Infection Biology and Innate Immunity (Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research)

PhD Position – Infection Biology and Innate Immunity (Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research)

PhD Position – Immunology (University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf)

Postdoctoral Position – Microbe-Immune Cell Homeostasis (Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Developmental Immunology (UC San Diego)

Postdoctoral Position – Vaccines for Animal Parasites (Ghent University)

Postdoctoral Position – Group B Streptococcus Interaction in Neonatal Sepsis (Institut Pasteur)

Postdoctoral Position – Mechanisms of Pathogen Infection-Associated Colon Inflammation and Tumorigenesis (Johns Hopkins University)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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