Volume 3.00 | Jan 7

Newsletter Issue
Immunology of Infectious Disease News 3.00 January 7, 2015
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Awakening Cells’ Killer Instinct: Scientists Train Immune System to Destroy Cure-Defying Mutant HIV
Researchers tamed mutant HIV by training a class of immune sentinel cells known as killer T cells to spot and eliminate HIV-infected cells capable of evading immune surveillance and impervious to immune system destruction. [Press release from Johns Hopkins University discussing online prepublication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Immunological Consequences of Intragenus Conservation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis T-Cell Epitopes
Scientists identified epitopes that are found only in nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTMs), allowing dissociation of M. tuberculosis (MTB)- versus NTM-specific reactivity. They found that T cells elicited by MTB/NTM cross-reactive epitopes in healthy controls were found mainly in a CCR6+CXCR3+ memory subset, similar to findings in latent MTB infection individuals. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

A Major Role for Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and a Minor Role for Regulatory T Cells in Immunosuppression during Staphylococcus aureus Infection
The authors investigated the mechanisms responsible for the suppression of T cell responses during chronic S. aureus infection. They found a significant expansion of granulocytic and monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in chronically infected mice, which exerted a strong immunosuppressive effect on T cell responses. [J Immunol] Abstract

T Cells Recognizing a 11mer Influenza Peptide Complexed to H-2Db Show Promiscuity for Peptide Length
Investigators characterized the CD8+ T-cell response specific for a 11mer peptide derived from influenza A viral polymerase basic protein 2. The short-term T-cell line, despite possessing highly biased T-cell receptor, was able to react with multiple peptides of different length sharing the same core sequence. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

CD4+ T-Cell Dependence of Primary CD8+ T-Cell Response against Vaccinia Virus Depends upon Route of Infection and Viral Dose
Investigators evaluated the effects of infection route and viral dose on primary CD8+ T-cell responses to vaccinia virus (VACV) in MHC class II−/− mice. CD4+ T-cell help deficiency diminished the generation of VACV-specific CD8+ T cells after intraperitoneal but not after intranasal infection. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

Vibrio cholerae Ghosts (VCG) Exert Immunomodulatory Effect on Dendritic Cells for Enhanced Antigen Presentation and Induction of Protective Immunity
Scientists investigated the ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to take up and internalize VCGs; evaluated the immunomodulatory effect of internalized VCGs on DC activation and maturation and their functional capacity to present chlamydial antigen to naïve and infection-sensitized CD4+ T cells; and evaluated the ability of VCGs to enhance the protective immunity of a chlamydial antigen. [BMC Immunol] Abstract | Full Article

Engineered Dendritic Cells from Cord Blood and Adult Blood Accelerate Effector T Cell Immune Reconstitution against HCMV
Researchers induced self-differentiation of peripheral blood and cord blood monocytes into dendritic cells processing pp65 (“SmyleDCpp65”). In vitro, SmyleDCpp65 resisted human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and expanded functional pp65-specific memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes. [Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev] Full Article


Activated CD4+CCR5+ T Cells in the Rectum Predict Increased SIV Acquisition in SIVGag/Tat-Vaccinated Rhesus Macaques
Researchers tested several vaccine candidates and their effects on mucosal CD4+ T cells in a simian model of HIV infection. They found that the immunizations did not protect the animals against infection; however, a lower set-point viral load was observed in the vaccinated animals [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA]
Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

Modulating DNA Methylation in Activated CD8+ T Cells Inhibits Regulatory T Cell-Induced Binding of Foxp3 to the CD8+ T Cell IL-2 Promoter
Scientists previously demonstrated that CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells activated during the course of feline immunodeficiency virus infection suppress CD8+ CTL function in a TGF-β-dependent fashion, inhibiting IFN-γ and IL-2 production and inducing G1 cell-cycle arrest. They now describe the molecular events occurring at the IL-2 promoter leading to suppression of IL-2 production. [J Immunol] Abstract

An HIV-1 Envelope Immunogen with W427S Mutation in CD4 Binding Site Induced More T Follicular Helper Memory Cells and Reduced Non-Specific Antibody Responses
Investigators constructed a gp120 mutant W427S of an HIV-1 primary R5 strain and examined its ability in the elicitation of antibody and the production of T follicular helper (Tfh) by immunization of BALB/c mice. They found that the trimeric wild-type gp120 can induce more non-specific antibody-secreting plasma cells, higher serum IgG secretion, and more Tfh cells by splenocyte. [PLoS One] Full Article

Liposomal Vaccines Incorporating Molecular Adjuvants and Intrastructural T-Cell Help Promote the Immunogenicity of HIV Membrane-Proximal External Region Peptides
The authors systematically explored how the structure and composition of liposomes displaying membrane-proximal external region peptides impacts the strength and durability of humoral responses to this antigen as well as helper T-cell responses in mice. [Vaccine] Abstract

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Virological Features Associated with the Development of Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies to HIV-1
The authors focus on the role of viral characteristics and evolution in shaping broadly neutralizing antibodies during HIV-1 infection, and describe how these findings may be translated into novel vaccine strategies. [Trends Microbiol] Abstract

MicroRNAs Function in CD8+ T Cell Biology
The authors outline the current understanding of the function of microRNAs in CD8+ T cell biology as it impacts expression of protein-coding genes in the context of proper development, infection, as well as oncogenesis. [J Leukoc Biol] Abstract

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Bavarian Nordic Announces Initiation of Phase I Clinical Trial for the Ebola Vaccine Regimen of MVA-BN® Filo and Janssen’s AdVac® Technology
Bavarian Nordic A/S announced the initiation of a Phase I, first-in-human clinical trial of the preventative Ebola vaccine regimen consisting of MVA-BN® Filo and the AdVac® technology from Crucell Holland B.V., one of the Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson. [Bavarian Nordic A/S] Press Release

Inovio Pharmaceuticals HIV Immunotherapy Shows Characteristics Considered Vital to Treating HIV
Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that results from a 12-patient Phase I study of Inovio’s HIV immunotherapy, PENNVAX®-B, in HIV-infected patients revealed that immune response characteristics generated by the immunotherapy were similar to those observed in HIV-infected individuals who without treatment do not progress to further stages of the disease. [Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

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NEW Postdoctoral Position – Infection Biology and Innate Immunity (Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research)

NEW PhD Position – Infection Biology and Innate Immunity (Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research)

NEW PhD Position – Immunology (University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Microbe-Immune Cell Homeostasis (Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Developmental Immunology (UC San Diego)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Vaccines for Animal Parasites (Ghent University)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Group B Streptococcus Interaction in Neonatal Sepsis (Institut Pasteur)

Postdoctoral Position – Mechanisms of Pathogen Infection-Associated Colon Inflammation and Tumorigenesis (Johns Hopkins University)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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