Volume 2.49 | Dec 17

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.49 December 17, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Closing in on ‘Holy Grail’ of HIV Vaccine
Researchers suggest why previous vaccine formulations haven’t been able to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies and describe a potential way forward to hit exactly the right B cells. [Press release from Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center discussing publication in Science] Press Release | Abstract
Learn more about the new smartphone app for human blood cell frequencies
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
IL-28B Is a Key Regulator of B- and T-Cell Vaccine Responses against Influenza
Researchers demonstrate that the presence of the IL-28B TG/GG genotype was associated with increased seroconversion following influenza vaccination. In vitro, recombinant IL-28B increased Th1-cytokines and suppressed Th2-cytokines, H1N1-stimulated B-cell proliferation, and IgG-production. [PLoS Pathog]
Full Article | Editorial

A Critical Role for the TLR Signaling Adapter Mal in Alveolar Macrophage-Mediated Protection against Bordetella pertussis
Researchers examined the role of Toll-like receptor (TLR) adapter protein Mal in the control of B. pertussis infection in the lungs. Macrophages from Mal−/− mice were defective in an early burst of pro-inflammatory cytokine production and in their ability to kill or constrain intracellular growth of B. pertussis. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

CpG DNA Assists the Whole Inactivated H9N2 Influenza Virus in Crossing the Intestinal Epithelial Barriers via Transepithelial Uptake of Dendritic Cell Dendrites
Investigators report both in vitro and in vivo that CpG DNA combined with H9N2 whole inactivated influenza virus was capable of recruiting additional dendritic cells to the intestinal epithelial cells to form transepithelial dendrites for luminal viral uptake. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

The α-Tocopherol Form of Vitamin E Reverses Age-Associated Susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae Lung Infection by Modulating Pulmonary Neutrophil Recruitment
Investigators tested whether the α-tocopherol form of vitamin E, a regulator of immunity, could modulate neutrophil responses as a preventive strategy to mitigate the age-associated decline in resistance to S. pneumoniae. [J Immunol] Abstract | Press Release

Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients with a Vitamin D Deficiency Demonstrate Low Local Expression of the Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 but Enhanced FoxP3+ Regulatory T Cells and IgG-Secreting Cells
Researchers demonstrate that pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients with a vitamin D deficiency had significantly reduced local levels of the vitamin D-inducible antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in granulomatous lesions compared to distal parenchyma from the infected lung. Instead, TB lesions were abundant in CD3+ T cells and FoxP3+ regulatory T cells as well as IgG-secreting CD20+ B cells, particularly in sputum-smear positive patients with cavitary TB. [Clin Immunol] Full Article


Initiation of ART during Early Acute HIV Infection Preserves Mucosal Th17 Function and Reverses HIV-Related Immune Activation
While intact during Fiebig (F) stage I/II, depletion of mucosal Th17 cell numbers and function was observed during FIII correlating with local and systemic markers of immune-activation. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiated at FI/II prevented loss of Th17 cell numbers and function, while initiation at FIII restored Th17 cell numbers but not their polyfunctionality. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Lentiviral Nef Proteins Manipulate T Cells in a Subset-Specific Manner
Investigators analyzed the effect of Nef proteins differing in their TCR-CD3 downmodulation function in HIV infected human lymphoid aggregate cultures and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. They found that Nef efficiently downmodulates TCR-CD3 in naïve and memory CD4+ T cells and protects the latter against apoptosis. [J Virol] Abstract

Rosuvastatin Reduces Vascular Inflammation and T Cell and Monocyte Activation in HIV-Infected Subjects on Antiretroviral Therapy
Despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), increased levels of immune activation persist in HIV-infected subjects. Statins have anti-inflammatory effects and may reduce immune activation in HIV disease. Researchers assessed the effect of rosuvastatin on markers of cardiovascular risk and immune activation in ART-treated patients. [J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr] Abstract

Profound Loss of Intestinal Tregs in Acutely SIV-Infected Neonatal Macaques
Large numbers of FoxP3+ T cells were found in all tissues in newborn macaques, which coexpressed high levels of CD25 and CD4, indicating that they were Tregs. After SIV infection, a significant loss of Tregs was detected in the intestine compared with age-matched normal infants. [J Leukoc Biol] Abstract

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Hassle-Free PBMC Isolation in Just 15 Minutes
Bacteria, the Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Unfolded Protein Response: Friends or Foes?
The authors describe how bacteria interact with the endoplasmic reticulum, including how bacteria induce the unfolded protein response (UPR), how subversion of the UPR promotes bacterial proliferation and how the UPR contributes to innate immune responses against invading bacteria. [Nat Rev Microbiol] Abstract

Enemy Attraction: Bacterial Agonists for Leukocyte Chemotaxis Receptors
The importance of leukocyte chemotaxis in host defense is highlighted by the fact that some bacterial pathogens produce chemotaxis inhibitors. How the various chemoattractants, receptors and antagonists shape antibacterial host defense represents an important topic for future research. [Nat Rev Microbiol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.
Emory, UGA Collaborate to Leverage Strengths in Infectious Disease Research
The University of Georgia and Emory University are strengthening their collaborations to elevate the position of the Atlanta-Athens corridor as a national hub for infectious disease research. The two institutions are currently working together on grant and contract-funded projects totaling more than $45 million. [Emory University] Press Release

HIV/AIDS Immunovirologist Dr. Doug Nixon Selected for 2014 National Academy of Inventors Fellowship
Douglas Nixon, M.D., Ph.D., chair of the Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Tropical Medicine and Walter G. Ross Professor of Basic Science Research at the George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Science, was named a 2014 National Academy of Inventors Fellow. [George Washington University (Newswise, Inc.)] Press Release

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National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Keystone Symposium – Co-Infection: A Global Challenge for Disease Control
March 15-20, 2015
Ouro Preto, Brazil

NEW  24th Annual Canadian Association for HIV Research (CAHR) Conference 2015
April 30-May 3, 2015
Toronto, Canada

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
NEW Research Associate (Qu Biologics Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Innate Immunity and Susceptibility to Infection (Lund University)

Postdoctoral Position – Mucosal Immunology (Karolinska Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Respiratory Immunology, Biology, and Drug Discovery Research (Washington University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Mechanisms of Pathogen Infection-Associated Colon Inflammation and Tumorigenesis (Johns Hopkins University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Innate Immune Responses to Virus Infection or Autoimmune Diseases (Houston Methodist Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Universal Influenza Vaccine Development (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)

Postdoctoral Position – Viral Pathogenesis (The Scripps Research Institute)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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