Volume 2.47 | Dec 3

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.47 December 3, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Chimpanzee Adenovirus Vector Ebola Vaccine – Preliminary Report
A replication-defective recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus type 3-vectored ebolavirus vaccine was rapidly advanced into Phase I clinical evaluation. Primary and secondary end points related to safety and immunogenicity were assessed throughout the first four weeks after vaccination. [New Engl J Med]
Full Article | Press Release
Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Antibody-Driven Design of a Human Cytomegalovirus gHgLpUL128L Subunit Vaccine that Selectively Elicits Potent Neutralizing Antibodies
Sera from mice immunized with a pentamer vaccine neutralized infection of both epithelial cells and fibroblasts and prevented cell-to-cell spread and viral dissemination from endothelial cells to leukocytes. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article

Control of Pathogenic Effector T-Cell Activities In Situ by PD-L1 Expression on Respiratory Inflammatory Dendritic Cells during Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection
The interaction of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) with its ligand PD-L1 is vital to restrict the pro-inflammatory activities of lung effector T cells in situ, thereby inhibiting the development of excessive pulmonary inflammation and injury during respiratory syncytial virus infection. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Epitope-Specific CD4+, but Not CD8+, T-Cell Responses Induced by Recombinant Influenza A Viruses Protect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection
Investigators explored the impact of pulmonary delivery of recombinant influenza A viruses on the induction of M. tuberculosis-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses and the resultant protection against M. tuberculosis infection in C57BL/6 mice. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

Pathophysiologic and Transcriptomic Analyses of Viscerotropic Yellow Fever in a Rhesus Macaque Model
Scientists characterized disease progression as well as alterations in immune system homeostasis, cytokine production and gene expression in rhesus macaques infected with the virulent yellow fever virus strain DakH1279. [PLoS Negl Trop Dis] Full Article | Press Release

B Cells Modulate Systemic Responses to Pneumocystis Lung Infection and Protect On-Demand Hematopoiesis via T Cell-Independent, Innate Mechanism when Type-I-IFN-Signaling Is Absent
Investigators define how B cells protect on-demand hematopoiesis following Pneumocystis lung infection in a model. This activity is independent of CD4+ T cell help and B cell-receptor-specificity, and does not require B cell migration to the bone marrow. [Infect Immun] Abstract | Full Article


HIV-1 Pathogenicity and Virion Production Are Dependent on the Metabolic Phenotype of Activated CD4+ T Cells
Scientists report that in primary CD4+ T cells, the flux through the glycolytic pathway is increased upon infection with HIV-1. This increase in glycolytic activity does not occur in T cell lines when infected with HIV-1. They monitored the effect of preventing glycolysis in CD4+ T cells on virus replication cycle and cell fate. [Retrovirology] Full Article

Different Plasma Markers of Inflammation Are Influenced by Immune Recovery and cART Composition or Intensification in Treated HIV Infected Individuals
Since intensification of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) with raltegravir reduced CD8 T-cell activation in the Discor-Ral and IntegRal studies, researchers evaluated the effect of raltegravir intensification on several soluble inflammation markers in these studies. [PLoS One] Full Article

Nef Neutralizes the Ability of Exosomes from CD4+ T Cells to Act as Decoys during HIV-1 Infection
Scientists performed in vitro HIV-1 infection assays in the presence of distinct populations of exosomes. They demonstrate that exosomes released by CD4+ T cells, but not CD4 T cells, efficiently inhibit HIV-1 infection in vitro. [PLoS One] Full Article

Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells and Helios+ Subset in Perinatally Acquired HIV
Investigators examined the impact of HIV infection on total regulatory T cells (Tregs) and their Helios subsets in a perinatal acquired HIV infected pediatric population. The finding indicates a selective expansion or survival of Tregs in association with CD4 depletion and increased viremia. [Clin Exp Immunol] Abstract

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The Role of Human Dendritic Cells in HIV-1 Infection
The authors summarize advances in the role of dendritic cells during HIV-1 infection and discuss their potential involvement in the development of preventive strategies against HIV-1 and other STIs. [J Invest Dermatol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.
UTMB Part of National Research Group Awarded $20 Million HIV Grant
The University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) is part of a collaboration led by the Oak Crest Institute of Science that received a $20 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to develop a novel intravaginal ring capable of delivering powerful antiretroviral drugs to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted HIV in women. [The University of Texas Medical Branch] Press Release

GSK Names Winners of 2014 Discovery Fast Track Challenge
GSK has announced the winners of its second Discovery Fast Track Challenge – a program designed to combine the expertise of academic researchers with that of drug discovery scientists at GSK, to accelerate the search for new medicines. [GlaxoSmithKline plc.] Press Release

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National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Keystone Symposium – Granulomas in Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases
January 22-27, 2015
Santa Fe, United States

NEW Gordon Research Conference: Antimicrobial Peptides
May 3-8, 2015
Lucca, Italy

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Mucosal Immunology (Karolinska Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Respiratory Immunology, Biology, and Drug Discovery Research (Washington University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Mechanisms of Pathogen Infection-Associated Colon Inflammation and Tumorigenesis (Johns Hopkins University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Innate Immune Responses to Virus Infection or Autoimmune Diseases (Houston Methodist Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Universal Influenza Vaccine Development (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)

Postdoctoral Fellow – B Cell Responses Induced by HPV Vaccines (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Viral Pathogenesis (The Scripps Research Institute)

Associate Professor – Molecular Immunology (Chiba University)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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