Volume 2.45 | Nov 19

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.45 November 19, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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TOP STORY
Researchers Prevent, Cure Rotavirus Infection Using Novel Method
Flagellin stopped rotavirus by rapidly inducing an immune response that would normally be activated by select bacteria rather than a virus. Flagellin triggered the innate immune system, which provides an immediate response to pathogens, to produce two proteins: Interleukin-22, which prevented the virus from entering cells, and Interleukin-18, which removed existing rotavirus from infected cells. [Press release from Georgia State University discussing online prepublication in Science] Press Release | Abstract
How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Enteric Bacteria Promote Human and Mouse Norovirus Infection of B Cells
Scientists demonstrate that human and mouse noroviruses infected B cells in vitro and likely in vivo. Human norovirus infection of B cells required the presence of histo-blood group antigen-expressing enteric bacteria. Mouse norovirus replication was reduced in vivo when the intestinal microbiota was depleted by means of oral antibiotic administration. [Science] Abstract | Press Release

Cutaneous Innate Immune Sensing of Toll-like Receptor 2-6 Ligands Suppresses T Cell Immunity by Inducing Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells
Researchers found suppression of immune responses due to cutaneous infection with Gram-positive S. aureus, which was based on bacterial lipopeptides. Skin exposure to Toll-like receptor (TLR)2-6-binding lipopeptides, but not TLR2-1-binding lipopeptides, potently suppressed immune responses through induction of Gr1+CD11b+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

A Human Vaccine Strategy Based on Chimpanzee Adenoviral and MVA Vectors that Primes, Boosts, and Sustains Functional HCV-Specific T Cell Memory
Investigators show that hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific T cells induced by ChAd3 are optimally boosted with modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), and generate very high levels of both CD8+ and CD4+ HCV-specific T cells targeting multiple HCV antigens. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

The Staphylococcal Toxins γ-Hemolysin AB and CB Differentially Target Phagocytes by Employing Specific Chemokine Receptors
Researchers identified the chemokine receptors ​CXCR1, ​CXCR2 and ​CCR2 as targets for γ-hemolysin AB, and the complement receptors ​C5aR and ​C5L2 as targets for γ-hemolysin CB. The receptor expression patterns allow the toxins to efficiently and differentially target phagocytic cells. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Basophil-Mediated Protection against Gastrointestinal Helminths Requires IgE-Induced Cytokine Secretion
Using mixed bone marrow chimeras, scientists found that activating Fc receptors on basophils were required for protective immunity but not for regulation of basophil homeostasis. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Caspase-1 Autoproteolysis Is Differentially Required for NLRP1b and NLRP3 Inflammasome Function
Scientists investigated whether nucleotide-binding domain and leucine rich repeat pyrin containing (NLRP)3 and/or apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) were required for caspase-1 activation upon lethal toxin stimulation in the BALB/c background. The NLRP1b inflammasome activation was assessed in both macrophages and dendritic cells lacking either ASC or NLRP3. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA]
Abstract | Full Article

HIV

TLR7 Induces Anergy in Human CD4+ T Cells
As chronic infection with RNA viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) induces profound dysfunction of CD4+ T cells, researchers investigated the role of Toll-like receptor (TLR)7-induced anergy in HIV-1 infection. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Activation of HIV Transcription with Short-Course Vorinostat in HIV-Infected Patients on Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy
Investigators performed a single arm, open label, proof-of-concept study in which vorinostat, a pan-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) latency and histone deacetylase inhibitor, was administered orally once daily for 14 days to 20 HIV-infected individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Differences in Coreceptor Specificity Contribute to Alternative Tropism of HIV-1 Subtype C for CD4+ T-Cell Subsets, Including Stem Cell Memory T-Cells
Researchers quantified the susceptibility of naïve and memory CD4+ T-cell subsets, including stem cell memory T-cells, to infection by HIV-1 subtype C strains from treatment-naïve subjects who progressed from chronic to advanced stages of disease whilst either maintaining CCR5-using viruses, or who experienced emergence of dominant CXCR4-using strains. [Retrovirology] Full Article

HIV-Specific ADCC Improves after Antiretroviral Therapy and Correlates with Normalization of the NK Cell Phenotype
Scientists investigated natural killer (NK) cell function, as measured by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), in HIV-1 positive individuals before and six months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation. [J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr] Abstract

Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells from HIV-1 Elite Controllers Maintain a Gut-Homing Phenotype Associated with Immune Activation
Scientists found that during progressive HIV-1 infection plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) were depleted in peripheral blood compared to seronegative controls, and, correlating with plasma viremia, the remaining pDCs upregulated the gut-homing marker, α4β7. [AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Recent Strategies Targeting HIV Glycans in Vaccine Design
Recent studies of HIV-positive patients with strongly neutralizing sera have shown that the human immune system is capable of producing potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies, some of which neutralize up to 90% of HIV strains. The use of engineered glycoproteins and other glycostructures as vaccines to elicit antibodies with broad neutralizing activity is a key area of interest in HIV vaccine design. [Nat Chem Biol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
ADMA Biologics Present at the 9th International Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Symposium
ADMA Biologics, Inc. announced data describing the composition and efficacy in an animal model of its polyclonal IVIG product, RI-002. [Press release from ADMA Biologics, Inc. discussing research presented at the 9th International RSV Symposium, Cape Town] Press Release | Poster

NIH-Sponsored Study Identifies Superior Drug Regimen for Preventing Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission
For HIV-infected women in good immune health, taking a three-drug regimen during pregnancy prevents mother-to-child HIV transmission more effectively than taking one drug during pregnancy, another during labor and two more after giving birth. [The National Institutes of Health (NIH)] Press Release

From our sponsor: Free Nature Reviews Immunology poster – Immune Response to HIV. Request a copy.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
$10 Million UAB Grant Is Probing Control of Viral Infections
The grant includes three University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) labs working with mouse models and one lab at the University of California-Davis. It also includes a series of human experiments run at Emory University. The UAB grant focus is viral-induced cell-fate decisions in anti-viral immunity. [University of Alabama at Birmingham] Press Release

LSU Health New Orleans Research Targets Deadly Intra-Abdominal Infections
Mairi Noverr, PhD has been awarded a $1.8 million grant by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The funding will support research to reduce the death rate from intra-abdominal infections caused by both fungal and bacterial pathogens. [Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (EurekAlert)] Press Release

Infectious Diseases Researcher Wins $1.225 Million Fellowship
Dr. Marc Pellegrini is one of three researchers to be awarded a 2014 Sylvia and Charles Viertel Charitable Foundation Senior Medical Research Fellowship. Pelligrini said the five-year fellowship would allow him to focus on progressing his research into chronic infections such as HIV, hepatitis B and tuberculosis. [The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Keystone Symposium – Immunity to Veterinary Pathogens: Informing Vaccine Development
January 20-25, 2015
Keystone, United States

NEW IMMUNOLOGY 2015™ The American Association of Immunologists (AAI) Annual Meeting
May 8-12, 2015
New Orleans, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Mechanisms of Pathogen Infection-Associated Colon Inflammation and Tumorigenesis (Johns Hopkins University)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Innate Immune Responses to Virus Infection or Autoimmune Diseases (Houston Methodist Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Parasitology (Institut Pasteur)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Universal Influenza Vaccine Development (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)

Postdoctoral Fellow – B Cell Responses Induced by HPV Vaccines (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Viral Pathogenesis (The Scripps Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Host Genetic Factors and Activity of Endogenous Retroviruses (Medical Research Council)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Immune Responses to HSV (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Associate Professor – Molecular Immunology (Chiba University)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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