Volume 2.44 | Nov 12

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.44 November 12, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Engineered Liposomes Sequester Bacterial Exotoxins and Protect from Severe Invasive Infections in Mice
Inspired by the principles that govern natural toxin-host interactions, researchers have engineered artificial liposomes that are tailored to effectively compete with host cells for toxin binding. Liposome-bound toxins are unable to lyse mammalian cells in vitro. [Nat Biotechnol] Abstract | Press Release
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Infiltrating Regulatory B Cells Control Neuroinflammation following Viral Brain Infection
In vivo and in vitro experiments were undertaken to elucidate the role of regulatory B cells in controlling neuroinflammation following viral brain infection. Scientists used multicolor flow cytometry to phenotype lymphocyte subpopulations infiltrating the brain, along with in vitro cocultures to assess their anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory roles. [J Immunol] Abstract

CD4 T Cells Specific for a Latency-Associated γ-Herpesvirus Epitope Are Polyfunctional and Cytotoxic
Researchers exploited γHV68 infection of mice to enhance understanding of the CD4 T cell response during γ-herpesvirus infection. Using a consensus prediction approach, they identified 16 new CD4 epitope-specific responses that arise during lytic infection. [J Immunol] Abstract

Lassa and Marburg Viruses Elicit Distinct Host Transcriptional Responses Early after Infection
Investigators report a subset of host mRNAs, including heat-shock proteins like HSPA1B, immunoglobulins like IGJ, and cell adhesion molecules like SIGLEC1, whose differences in expression are strong enough to distinguish Lassa infection from Marburg infection in non-human primates. [BMC Genomics]
Full Article | Press Release

Adoptive Transfer of Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells Decreases Inhibitory and Regulatory T Cell Differentiation and Improves Survival in Murine Polymicrobial Sepsis
Eighty C57BL/6 mice were subjected to sham or caecal ligation and puncture surgery. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were administered at six, 12, and 24 hours after surgery. After three days, researchers assessed serum indices of organ function, organ tissue histopathology, cytokine levels in the serum, PD-1 expression on T cells, regulatory T cell differentiation in the spleen, and the survival rate. [Immunology] Abstract


A Primary CD4+ T Cell Model of HIV-1 Latency Established after Activation through the T Cell Receptor and Subsequent Return to Quiescence
The authors describe an ex vivo primary cell system that is generated under conditions that reflect the in vivo establishment of latency. This primary cell model can be used to perform drug screens, to study cytolytic T lymphocyte responses to HIV-1, to compare viral alleles or to expand the ex vivo life span of cells from HIV-1-infected individuals for extended study. [Nat Protoc] Abstract

Gut Epithelial Barrier and Systemic Inflammation during Chronic HIV Infection
A cross-sectional study was performed of antiretroviral therapy-suppressed, untreated HIV-infected, and seronegative participants consenting to gut biopsies and a blood draw. Neutrophil infiltration as a surrogate response to epithelial breach, colorectal epithelial proliferation as a measure of repair, and mucosal apoptosis by immunohistochemistry were determined in gut biopsies. [AIDS] Abstract

Elevated Levels of Monocyte Activation Markers Are Associated with Subclinical Atherosclerosis in HIV-Infected and -Uninfected Men
Investigators assessed associations of serologic markers of monocyte activation, soluble CD163 and CD14, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, with subclinical atherosclerosis among HIV-infected and -uninfected men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. [J Infect Dis] Abstract

Immune-Correlates Analysis of an HIV-1 Vaccine Efficacy Trial Reveals an Association of Nonspecific Interferon-γ Secretion with Increased HIV-1 Infection Risk: A Cohort-Based Modeling Study
Scientists assessed pre-infection cellular immune responses measured at four weeks after a second vaccination to determine their roles in HIV-1 infection susceptibility among Step study male participants. [PLoS One] Full Article

Apoptosis Pathways in HIV-1-Infected Patients before and after Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Relevance to Immune Recovery
HIV-1-infected patients were enrolled into a randomized, controlled study of the immune effects of a lopinavir/ritonavir-based versus an efaviren-based highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen in antiretroviral-naive subjects with CD4+ counts <350 cells/mm3. [AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses] Abstract

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Roles of Autophagy in HIV Infection
The authors review the current literature on the interactions between autophagy and HIV among different immune cells and discuss new research that re-emphasizes the role of inflammation in HIV-mediated CD4+ T cell death. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.
Artesunate-Mefloquine Fixed-Dose Combination (ASMQ FDC) Proves Safe and Efficacious to Treat Children in Africa with Malaria
Results of a multi-center clinical trial in Africa in children under five years of age with uncomplicated falciparum malaria showed that ASMQ FDC is as safe and efficacious as Artemether-Lumefantrine FDC, Africa’s most widely adopted treatment. [Press release from The Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative discussing research presented at the 63rd annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH), New Orleans] Press Release

Sofosbuvir/Ledipasvir Cures Nearly All Genotype 1 HIV/HCV Coinfected Patients
All but one participant treated with a coformulation of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir achieved sustained virological response at 12 weeks post-treatment in a study looking at traditionally hard-to-treat HIV/HCV coinfected patients. [Press release from HIVandHepatitis.com discussing research presented at the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) Liver Meeting, Boston] Press Release

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Precision for Medicine Awarded NIH Contract Valued at $28 Million
Precision for Medicine announced that its subsidiary, Precision Bioservices, Inc., has been awarded a seven-year contract of up to $28 million to provide management and oversight of disease-study specimens for the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. [Precision for Medicine, Inc.] Press Release

The Medicines Company Announces First Patient Enrollment in Phase III Studies of CARBAVANCE™ in Development for the Treatment of Serious Bacterial Infections Due to Gram-Negative Bacteria
The Medicines Company announced enrollment of the first patient in its Phase III clinical trial program for CARBAVANCE™, an investigational intravenous antibiotic under development for the treatment of serious bacterial infections due to gram-negative bacteria. [The Medicines Company] Press Release

Bacterial or Viral Lung Infection? UPMC Studying Blood Test that Could Reduce Antibiotic Use
A new blood biomarker test that indicates whether bacteria is the cause of a patient’s lung infection is now being studied at UPMC Presbyterian, launching a national multicenter trial. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center] Press Release

FDA Grants QIDP Fast-Track Designation to RedHill Biopharma’s Phase III H. pylori Drug RHB-105
RedHill Biopharma Ltd. announced that its Phase III Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy, RHB-105, has been granted Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP) designation by the U.S. FDA. [RedHill Biopharma Ltd.] Press Release
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Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW The 4th NIF (Network of Immunology Frontier) Winter School on Advanced Immunology
January 18-23, 2015
Singapore, Singapore

NEW Keystone Symposium – Dendritic Cells and Macrophages Reunited
March 8-13, 2015
Montreal, Canada

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
NEW Postdoctoral Fellowship – Parasitology (Institut Pasteur)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Universal Influenza Vaccine Development (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)

Postdoctoral Fellow – B Cell Responses Induced by HPV Vaccines (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Viral Pathogenesis (The Scripps Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Host Genetic Factors and Activity of Endogenous Retroviruses (Medical Research Council)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Mucosal Immune System in Chronic and Infectious Disease (Griffith Health Institute)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Immune Responses to HSV (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Associate Professor – Molecular Immunology (Chiba University)

Research Fellow – Gene Expression of Immune Cells in Response to Infection (The University of Nottingham)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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